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Lecture

PSY1102 - Nature, Nurture and Human Diversity #2 - Chapter 4

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY1102
Professor
Najwa Haddad
Semester
Winter

Description
NATURE, NURTURE AND HUMAN DIVERSITY (CHAPTER 4) part 2 2. Nurture Component A. Prenatal Development - twins share the same womb but it’s possible that one is getting the better nutrition and blood supply - fraternal twins have separate placentas - identical twins usually have the same, but sometimes separate - Marked for life? - according to doctors and researchers DNA and lifestyle in adulthood will affect your health - however, it is highly possible that the conditions in the womb will affect us in adulthood. diseases might have their root while a baby is still in the womb - a baby may appear to develop healthily but they might actually have problems that will not show up until later in adulthood B. Experience and Brain Development B1. Experience Facilitates Brain Development - you could be born with the most amazing brain on earth, however, we doubt experience and proper stimulation from the environment the brain will never reach its potential - experience and nurture is absolutely essential for the development of the brain B2. Experience Changes the Brain - researchers once believed that once the brain developed, it will stay exactly the same until death unless you get a disease or a tumor or something. - however, through interactions with the environment, the brain does change. it does not stay the same - old poor rats & old rich rats - the old rich rats did significantly better with IQ tests and memory tests than the poor rats. - the poor rats lived in a small cage, alone with only food and water - the rich rats lived in large playful cages with other rats - the brain was stimulated in the rich rats, that is why they did better on tests and died with larger brains C. How Much Credit or Blame do Parents Deserve? - see textbook D. Peer Influence - same age or same level of maturity (not all friends) - peers are super important in our lives - can be traced as far back as infancy - having peers can protect us from some of the affects of childhood abuse - can protect us from things like depression and loneliness - influence us in so many ways - biggest influence is on risk taking behaviours - smoking, sexual activity, drugs, alcohol - is it the selection effect? - someone who already smokes will pick friends who smoke - both the selection effect and peer influence are effective - 3 ways Parents could effect peer-child relationship - through the lifestyle choices they make (where they live) - through the advice they give (how to solve problems) - quality of the parent child relationship - on average, children who bully come from families that are aggressive, rejecting and controlling against them - however, children who are bullied usually have parents that are over protective - children who are less likely to use aggression in life (don’t bully/get bullied) have parents that are probably respective, and use asse
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