SOC 2106A Wednesday, September 11, 2013
The overall understanding of deviance and social problems, and what are the main
issues covered in the book. Main issues: deviance is a social problem, reality is
social constructed, than behaviors are more part of the social process. Deductive:
when you have your general theory and you test it based on certain facts. In this
book the author says it is more inductive. Social process: it is defined as a
community to organize and maintain social order. It has certain procedures to
reach that conclusion or response. Social process is not made of only one act, it is
the combination of certain issues, the context is very important. On pg.10 of the
book, disturbing act* Canadian approaches from the top, care and control, where
as US looks at in from the “bottom” and the individuals right. In Canada we do
not have capital punishment. Consensus vs. conflict theory*
Part 1: main issues. Deviance is wrecking norms. Certain societies define,
“breaking norms” differently. John Hagen has distinguished the types of deviance
in terms of public views. Public does not view all types of deviance in the same
matter, there are some that are more serious and the response to them are more
severe where some are not. 4 types: social deviations, conflict crime, 1980’s* pay
attention to the 4 categories* furries*
Positivism – Constructive – Integrated
Positive: they are real, we can see the effects of them. 3 main elements:
absolutism: deviant acts are real, they exist. We can feel that they happen, we can
see the consequences. Objectivism: tells us that since deviance is an observable
act, then we can objectively study deviance and social problems. , and
determinism: deviance is a determined behavior, there are causes for deviance. It
is determined. .
Construction: those who follow construction tell us that deviance is a label, it is
defined as such as different times and different places we have different labels, it
is not real it is relative depending on the time and context, subjectivism: it is a
subjective experience therefore we cannot apply objective methodology for
studying deviance and social problems, by subjective research methods we can
determine people, and ask about experiences of deviance and social problems.
Volunteerism: deviance is a voluntary act, it is an expression of free will therefor
descriptive theories are used for that. The serial killers likes to kill people, or the
rapist gets satisfaction for raping, it is not caused from certain child experiences,
or society pushes them for certain acts. says no, they are not real, they are in our
Integrated: : is the view that says it is hard to include all types of deviant acts in
one bag and say they are all real, integrated tries to distinguish between the
agreement towards deviant act, if there is more consensus they apply positive. If
there is less consensus they apply constructionism.
Certain types of methodology: Qualitative: what’s the quality of the serial killer?
Quantitative: the statistics & numbers, studies.
Macro vs. Micro
Macro: studying wide terms, the whole structure than getting to an individual
Micro: studying the individual
Inductive vs. Deductive
Descriptive vs. explanatory
Descriptive: is that describes the situation of the relationship
Explanatory: explains the cause of the relationship
Techniques of gathering information or data: literature review is the most common
technique of gathering info. Observations are part of their studies
Techniques of analysis
Functionalism – Conflict/critical – symbolic interactionism
Functionalism: overall goal: equilibrium, society must work smoothly.
Anomie: without law or regulation, lawless ness, lack of norms, it occurs because of
rapid changes or just integration of those ties between elements of the society. We have to
work hard to bring equilibrium, even these offences and crimes that they have a function
in this society and there function is they clearly express the line between good behavior
and bad behavior. Those who follow functionalism (methodology) study the structure,
than an individual.
Conflict: Marx thinks that people are looking for the interest of the person.
Minimize the loss, maximize gain. There is a conflict between social classes. The
capitalist, vs. laborers.
Weber: thinks that conflict is not only between different standards, he thinks that we can
have conflict among people with the same standing. Horizontal hierarchy: people are
equal standing. People of the same workplace. In sports: they all have the same goal
to win, but they are competing with each other. Weber: more Micro: individual than
environment. Symbolic interactionism (micro): deviance doesn’t occur, unless somebody thinks it
occurs. It’s a relationship between 2 people. The way they interpret. Good: no deviance.
Bad: yes) it all depends on the interpretation of the people and also the label that they
give. G.H Mead H
Durkheim definition of crime: an act that is against the collective consciousness.
Collective consciousness = when there is more or less similar viewpoints regarding
certain issues. In more traditional smaller scale societies we have more of these
agreements. More modern societies we have less of these, there are more people and less
idea of agreement with regards to certain issues. It must be punishable, if not, it’s not a
Durkheim’s argument that crime is normal: any child that is bor