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Chapter 5- Development

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University of Ottawa
Najwa Haddad

Chapter 5Development I IntroductionDevelopmental psychology they study how we change from the moment of birth to death how we change morally physically psychologicallyDevelopment patterns of change that begin at conception and continue throughout the lifespan5 major issuesNaturenurtureContinuitystages does development occur in stages or is development continuous If we have stages then from one stage to the next we see major significant changes ex changing from a caterpillar to a butterfly they believe development occurs in a continuous and stage wayStabilitychange do the characteristics we develop as a child carry on If you are a shy 8 year old will you be a shy adultCritical periods are there periods throughout the lifespan that are more critical than othersThe impact of early experiences do our early childhood experiences effect us and if yes then to what degreeII Prenatal Development and the Newborn A ConceptionConception is going to take place when the body of a healthy women releases an egg and then she has sexual intercourse with a healthy male using no protectionOver 200 million sperm are going to be releasedWhen the sperm gets to the egg they release enzymes the egg then releases a chemical preventing any other sperm from getting in and the egg then pulls the sperm in1500 eggs matureOver 200000000 spermFewer than half of fertilized eggs survive beyond the first two weekB Prenatal Development B1 The 3 stages of Prenatal Development st 1 stage the Germinal Stage y Lasts about 1014 days y The zygote technical term for the baby y The zygote leaves the fallopian tube and reaches the uterus nd 2 stage the Embryonic Stage y Lasts from week 2 to week 8 y The placenta and umbilical cord form y The brain nervous system spinal cord heart all major organs begin to develop y The limbs fingers and toes begin to form and develop rd 3 Stage The Fetal Stage y Starts at week 9 and ends with the birth of the baby y During that stage baby is called fetus y All organs continue to growy Muscles become stronger and bones harden y At some point during this stage there is an explosive growth of the brain 250 thousand neurons made a minute B2 Environmental InfluencesEven though the placenta provides some protection for the baby the protection is not 100Teratology comes from the word tera which in Greek means monster this is where people study the causes of birth defectsTeratogens anything that causes a birth defect air pollution mercury y Effects depend on o Dose higher the does higher the probability of birth defect o Time of exposure at what stage o Genetic susceptibility some moms and their babies may be more susceptible to birth defects then other moms and their babies boys are much more vulnerable to the effects of teratogens then girlsMaternal Factors y Prescription and nonprescription drugs y Psychoactive drugs drugs that influence and effect the function of the brain could be illegal drugs like cocaine antidepressants cigarettes alcohol or coffee y Infectious diseases HIV Herpes HPV y Nutrition y Emotional states and stress if the mom is stressed the baby will get less blood and less oxygen if a mom is stressed it puts the baby at a higher risk for posttraumatic stress disorder in the future y Age the older the mom is or the younger under 18 the mom is the more likely it is for her to miscarry or have a baby with defects y Temperature hot tubs do not go in a sauna if you are pregnant because high temperature stops cell division y Exposure to environmental hazardsPaternal Factors y Low vitamin c babies at a risk of low birth rate birth defects or high miscarriages in partners
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