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Chapter 8dfd.docx

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University of Ottawa
Valerie Harbour

Ear and language (chapter 10) Aphasia  Impairment of language ability; loss of ability to express (brochas area) or understand speech(voraco aphasia) o Sound comes in got through…to remember o Cochlea then the auditory nerves then..  First to the medulla (cochlear nucleus), then 2 regions to the pons, then the tectum (inferior colliculus) in the midbrain, then the thalamus (medial geniculate nucleus) of the diencephalon, then to the cortex. (opposite side of the brain then distributed to the other side) Chapter 8 – drugs and hormones Outline Principles of psychopharmacology Psychopharmacology:  Study of how drugs affect the NS and behavior Drugs:  Chemical compounds administered to produce a desired change in the body o Medicinal or recreational purposes Psychoactive drug  Substance that acts to alter mood, thought, or behavior and is used to manage neuropsychological illness Drug routes into the NS  The way you would adminster drugs..the easiest way is orally. (goes to the stomach, maybe intestine and dissolved there to pass through to the blood) if it’s weak acid it can pass the stomach if it’s weak it can pass through the intestine to the blood stream  Any drug that goes to the blood stream will be diluted  Iintramuscular: injected through the muscle  Intravenous: through the vein (very quick)  Inhalation: inhaling (very quick)  Intracranial: into the brain (the quickest way, not a method used on a day to day basis)  Patch; can be absorbed into the skin and go to the blood stream..  Dosage is important depending on how it’s administered Blood brain barrier  Protects our brain from toxins and infections that are in the blood  Astrocytes cover 80% of the capillaries in the brain therefore substances Cn’t pass through as much.. o Some can such as oxygen and co2 (small uncharged molecule) or mimic o Certain molecules will be allowed to pass through via transporter or uncharged molecules Barrier free brain sites  Capillaries in those regions are not covered by astrocytes and therefore substances can pass through o Pituary gland, area postrema, and pineal gland (examples of these) How the body eliminates  excreted; diluted in the system by the goin through the blood o ex; women who take birth control..gettin ginto the envrionment  broken down: by the kidneys, etc..  elimination is very important drug action at synapses  all of them bypass the blood barrier in some way, and getinot the brain and affect synapses of neurons  Agonist:the same affect. (increases) – mimic a neurotransmitter and bind, or other things that will increase it  Antagonist: opposite of the agonist therefore it will decrease, block the neurotransmitters Drug action..  Synthesis; the making of the neurotransmiterr  Storage; vesicles, granules  Release; from the pre sunaptic  Receptor interaction; how it can react in the post synaptic Visualization Ach synapse  The way an agonist and antagonist can affect a synapse o Antagonist; botulin (poisonous agent produced, found in canned food) results in parallasis of movement – produce death. Blocks the release of ach. Also found in botox o Antagonist; curare (poison, used for hunting, with arrows, will parallise an animal once hit with it. It blocks the receptors to the ach o Agonist; acetate and choline , found in food will increase ach o Agonist; venom from the black widow promotes the release, excess of ach released into the synaptic cleft o Agonist;nicotine, stimulates the receptors (the same as ach) o Agonist: physostigmine and organophosphate; block the inactivation. They are found in insecticed, they bind to the enzymes that will break down the ach, therefore they block the inactivation o Some can cross the blood brain, nicotine and physostigmine can, but curare can’t cross the blood brain barrier Tolerance  Kind of like habituation.  Key word repeated exposure o Metabolic tolerance; mech in place to break down drugs in the body. Some will do it in a faster rate o Cellular tolerance; o Learned tolerance; ex; alcoholics + experiment in book..inmates alcohol everyday for 13 weeks, all increase of alcohol that they drank and high levels of alcohol. But after every day of being intoxicated, the behaviour diminished and the blood alcohol content deiminished even though they were drinking the same amount Sensitization (opposite of tolerance)  Can happen only after a few expose to the drugs and possibly after once 1 time you try the drug, the next time you have the same amount and your response is sensitived, much bigger this time around *been showed that sensitization is really hard to induce when given in their home cage, very diff to induce sensitatzation in a home area, however if you do this in a area they aren’t comfortable in, such as outside of their home cage, this is when sensitization…higher chance of overdose. Administration of ampheramine  Injected rats with the same dose of amphetamine…saw an increase response to the drug after sussesive amount of drug (same amount of drug given in the first place)  Can last a long time, you can wait month before injecting the animal, and it would still have the same sensitization  Amphetamine is an agonist, it enhances the release of dopamine, and blocks the reuptake of dopamine which leads to more dopamine in the synaptic cleft (dopamine agonist)  In sensitized animal more dopamine is released then in non sensitized animal Classification of psychoactive drugs  Can cross the blood brain barrier and act on the.. o 1. Antiansiety (anxiolitic (drugs that reduce anxiety(, opposite is anxiogenic) Class 1  Ex o Barbiturates (cross out alcohol, is not classified as a barbiturates, has the same type of effect not , is just an example of a class 1 drug) o Benzodiazepines: (anxiolitic)  Do not want to be on these for a long time, can become addictive and you can become dependent, and if stopped abruptly can have severe withdrawal symptoms o Tolerance; o Cross tolerance; so if you build up a tolerance to a drug and take another one that is similar, you may not build up a tolerance to the second one. o They affect gaba z receptor  When stimulated it will open and an influx of chloride ion will go into the cell (hyperpolarizes the cell and therefore is less likely to fire)  Sedative-hypnotic site; acts like gaba, so when alcohol bind to this recelptor will allow an influx of chloride  Antianxiety site; receptor will enhance the binding affects of gaba, won’t directly affect the chloride, so it’s dependent on the amount of gaba in the syneptic cleft The gaba receptor Image  1 of these types of drugs, are much easier to overdose on then the other, the barbiturate, gaba is deactivated quickly, many methods to deactivate. Alcohol barbiturate will act like gaba and will actually stay on the receptor longer then gaba.  Why would you never want to take both (a mixture) if you mix the two, they are all activated and have the same affect, activating the amount of chloride coming in, and a huge amount coming int….even a small amount of mixture of the two, can be lethal. Gaba being the main inhibitory in the brain, and gaba is being expressed throughout, and you are preventing the inhibitation of the chloride Class 2 (chloroprozmazine – thorazine) - antagonist  Def know what neuroleptic is (major tranquilizer)  Block the D2 receptro  Main affect reduce motor activity/agitation found in schizophrenia  Dev with these drugs allowed people to live at home and not psyh institutions o Dyskinesia (side affect) – ticks, tongue protusion. Also blocking dopamine (pleasure and reward) Dopamine hypothesis..  When looking at da in a normal patient and a schizophreni, it’s difficult to see the difference in da Drug effect  Amphetamine and cocaine/ more da left in the synaptic cleft Class 3  Circadium rhythm also affected in depression  Quote : completely different lifestyle now then it was back then. Get stressed about things that we shouldn’t and such..accumu
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