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University of Ottawa
Lisa Henry

,PSY 3122E HUMAN SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR Lisa Henry Week 1 Intro, syllabus Definitions and dimensions of Human Sexuality Theoretical perspectives NEXT WEEK READ: Ch. 1,2,3 Tests=75% content from class Human Sexuality: psychological, physiological, sociological on reproduction Need, intimacy, nature, pleasure, self-perception, social/gender, coping, interpersonal relationships, sexual orientation… Sexuality: Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. While sexuality can include all of these dimensions, not all of them are always experienced or expressed. Sexuality is influenced by the interaction of biological, psychological, social, economic, political, cultural, ethical, legal, historical and religious and spiritual factors. SIX DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF HUMAN SEXUALITY 1. Biological dimension -hormones, anatomy, genitals, reproduction, puberty, STI’s, genetics/neurotransmitters, sexual response 2. Socio-cultural dimension -sexual norms, ideals and stereotypes, gender roles, beliefs (behaviors), rituals 3. Psychological dimension -fantasies, phobias, orientation, identity, eroticism({mind}, pleasure/arousal) body image 4. Emotional dimension -feelings + emotions -love, security, attachment, fear, passion, lust, shame, anger, hatred, disgust… 5. Cognitive dimension -perception, evaluation 6. Religious, spiritual and moral dimension -decisions + choices (sexual behavior + issues){abortion, contraception, gay marriage}, ethics + morals, rules of conduct for followers(do and do not), values THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES *Reproduction* Evolutionary Perspectives Sociobiology: This perspective studies the biological basis of social behavior (including sexual behavior) in animals and humans. -Darwin—reproductive success (Donald trump w/G-digger) Psychological Theories: Psychoanalytic Theory *Freud erogenous zones* -New science: neuro-psychoanalysis (brain monitoring) -Learning theory Classical conditioning - takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an original unconditioned stimulus Operant conditioning - means a person is more likely to repeat a behavior if it is rewarded (reinforcement) Behavioural modification- techniques used to change an individual’s behaviour based on classical and operant conditioning principles Social Learning - based on operant conditioning, imitation and identification Social Exchange Theory – assumes people will choose actions that maximize rewards and minimize costs. Cognitive Theories -This perspective focuses on how people’s perception, labeling and evaluations of events (whether positively or negatively) influences their sexual behavior. -Gender Schema Theory(picture of stickman holding box (female holding tight while male holding out in front) Stereotypes Sociological Perspectives -What society we live in effecting our sexuality. -eg. “do you like to party?” in other persons shoes… -Symbolic Interaction Theory -Sexual Scripts Theory -Reiss’ Sociological Theory Feminist Theory -refute the heterosexual male model of sexuality -rather then the male penetrative theory -Qualitative rather then quantitative -open ended questions for men, subjective experience Queer theory perspective -resists the model that heterosexuality is its origin -different combinations and variations of sexuality -bio, psycho, social Week 2: Sept 11 Cross cultural studies (3 societies) Presentation Emilie Gravel : Canadians Next week: Ch.4+article  Cross-cultural Perspectives “polygamy”-marriage of more then 1 person -polygynie/polyandry -gynie= one man marrying many women -andry=one women, many men (often brothers) -‘Canada’=monogyny Ethnocentric -our norms are the only norms -our norms are the best norms -judge other norms…basis Why study sexual behaviors in different cultures? -Provides insight into the ways in which culture influences sexual behavior. -Illustrates the importance of learning in shaping human sexual behavior. -permissive --- restrictive continuum -low anxiety --- High anxiety continuum -low or high in sexual anxiety (how they judge societies) -i.e. menstruating women=Dani, sacred -permissive society=high tolerance of sexual expression, liberal attitude because culture sees sexuality as natural inherent part of individuals development. -semi-restrictive=few more rules then permissive society. Individual knows where the line is between deviant actions and not -restrictive=Society seeks to control sexual expression in rigid way. Lots of rules around what is acceptable and what is not. Often there is ignorance of role that sexuality plays in development or negative judgment, bad. -No society with freedom for sexuality -control/define acceptable behavior from what is not. -Is essential in analyzing sexually related problems in the world and is key in finding solutions. -men/women power dynamic, education, belief systems…cultural factors Three Cultures Mangaia of the Polynesian Cook Islands (Marshall) -By Australia/New Zealand -sex is an open topic of discussion -children have European physician knowledge of sex -sexual play, masturbation -boys around puberty went through ritual of ‘super incision’ (right of passage) -“expert” would cut middle of foreskin -bandage up, seclusion, diet, expert gives sexual techniques (stimulation…erotic caressing) -First experience is with experienced women of the community=then free to choose partners of his age -girls learn sexual techniques for experienced women -pelvic, vulvar movements.7 -both practiced with many partners (no emotional attachment) more as game, competition. -married for love around 20 years old -think sex multiple times=conception -unaware of menstruation -lengthy sex with experiences Virginity has physical harm on development -into pleasure period of life Permissive (low anxiety) People of the Irish Island of Inis Beag (John Messenger) -population 350 -all catholic -sex = guilt, shamefulness, sinful -no formal sexual education -mothers taught daughters to subtain to husbands animals cravings to conserve gods creations -age to get married for men 36, women 25 -no premarital sex -prior to marriage socialized apart (common in many cultures) -reproduction and economic purpose for marriage -church arranged -women orgasming deviant -men of island thought sexual activity drained their strength -lots of taboos against nudity -babies washed once a week, only ones allowed to be naked -everyone else washed in underwear -sex with underwear and always initiated by men. Missionary -no contraception, children per family=7 i.e. irish river dancing Restrictive (high anxiety) Mehinaku Indians of Central Brasil (Thomas Gregor) -open towards sex -sexual education of children (myth and stories) -children mythmade women for men=sex -sexual play for adolescents-discreet -puberty for both/seclusion. Men-diets, knowledge Women-dangerous -pregnancy without wedlock=bad -extra marital affair-2 to 14 lovers -men-desire -women- social gifts -men fear intercourse will make ill, stunt growth, zap vitality as wrestlers, attract dangerous spirits, danger skills as hunters and fishermen -Vagina dangerous- no foreplay. Contaminate food=paralysis -can’t have sex after 1 year of birth -seated most common position -women make choice of position -‘danger is pepper for sex’ -women no orgasm for sex, not even mentioned -food and sex analogies -jealousy is mentioned by social pressures to manage discreetly -semen accumulation to form baby Permissive (high anxiety) The Canadians -no study (official) -data generalized from American studies -Canadians more permissive then Americans -governments not effected by religions (secular) -US fundamental movement of Christians Between Anglo-Canadians and Franco-Quebecois -Sexual Guilt-“violating standards of proper sexual conduct” -masturbation (women), one night stands, extra marital sex… -Consequences of sexual guilt on sexual health and well-being? -inhibit self (refrain from certain sexual acts) -Causes -Relation between sex and culture (economics, views…) -i.e. masturbation -social cultural *Ethnicity -levels of sexual guilt vary -Anglo more restrictive then franco =higher levels of sexual guilt -Quiet Revolution-period in late 60’s early 80’s -Quebec went through rapid secular migration process -sexual health developed liberal/lenient -Anglo Canada also changed but not as drastic -Mechanisms: Family -First agent of sexual socialization (indirectly from parent) -Restrictive parents=more sexual guilt -vary cross-culturally -could play role between AC and FQ -Mechanisms: Religion -A very important agent of sexual socialization -meanings to sexuality (do and do not) -Judeo-Christian=restrictive Week 3: Sept. 18 Answers to last week’s Q’s Anatomy-bio psycho social dimensions Next week: Ch.9 physiology of sexual Resp. Ch.8 STI’s= Public Health Report  no diagrams on exams -skim through public health report Names for… Balls Sack Coin purse Eggs and egg Ball and stick Nuts Baby maker Money maker Shlong Sperm tube Womb raider -Names used in order to speak of the taboo to be “comfortable” -males parts=power, female=passivity/softness/sensitivity -negative connotation both sexes -swear words=cunt, dick… -negative association -Inuit 30 words for snow which is important to them, importance to genitals to society? Twisted and made negative, to insult/humiliate. Ambivalence -Religion, Christianity: relating to marriage, separation between body and spirit, socialization (culture, parents), attitudes -Children language: body parts, genitals. Ability to identify body parts (songs), games and toys to understand world (Barbie, Gi Joe-absence of genitals) comparing to themselves… -Parents explaining genitals (coconut and banana, ‘childish’) -Vulva vs. Vagina-language from parents/society…important for knowledge (Private) -clitoris, not taught to kids, humiliation=association (when talk about the subject, trouble ensues) -clash of values-correct language with children 1. Gives them the tools to understand their body and understand their experiences. Specificity when interviewed, i.e. sexual assault, pain, health reasons. Others incomplete and/or wrong. 2. Matter of fact kind of discussion. i.e. wash your ears, legs, vulva, penis… Giving them a meaning. Fosters knowledge, confident, positive and responsible attitude. 3. Sets the tone of how they will understand and feel about their sexuality in general throughout their lives. Sexual anatomy Erogenous zone -produce sexual response when stimulated -What makes it? -nerve receptors (richly enervative)=bio -vascularized (blood flow-veins and arteries)=bio -perceived as sexually stimulating (+)=cognitive (interpreted) -socialization/learning (environment)=social +learning -context Homologous Organs: -organs in the male and female that develop from the same embryonic tissue Analogous organs: -organs in the male and female that have similar functions -glands in the penis compared to clitoris (size…clitoris sensitive) Clitoris: -2 cavernous bodies-blood flow engorged -‘tip of ice berg’ clitoral network -vestibular bulbs-veins-engorged Hymen: -not a ‘good’ sign of sexual intercourse -not all women have them (only humans and horses) -protects vagina from bacteria at birth -“ripping and pain” Vagina: -only 1/3 outer areas have nerves -internal part mostly insensitive -Cervix secrets healthy normal fluids (based on menstrual cycle) -flushing bacteria out Anterior Posterior Interior The size of a man’s penis is determined by… -Genetics Size theoretically equalizes when erect Penis: -2 cavernous bodies gorges with blood -stopped by tunica albunginea -1 spongy (urethra) Scrotum -testicles -sperm “born” -stored in epididymis -60%fluid come from seminal vesicle, 40% from prostate, les then 1% from semen -seminal (alkaline-sperm able to swim, fruictose-vertility) -prostate (also alkaline fluid, gives ‘taste’) food – body secretions -Cowpers gland (alkaline fluid to clear urethra) “Blue Balls” -Vasocongestion-blood being pooled in the area due to sexual arousal (aches) -relief by ejaculation or stop thinking of it (slower) Circumcision -cultural/religious -health? -research being done -more sensitive -circumcised vs. uncircumcised -no difference Peronie’s Disease -curve that develops naturally -virus type of scare tissue of the albuginea -errection painful (pulls on tissue) -penetration nearly impossible and painful -Genetic? -Creams to surgery to fix Phimosis -foreskin not folding back -no air, cleaning, infection -fix by circumcision Week 4: September 25, 2013 Brest Cancer -most diagnosed cancer in Canadian women -radiation, hormone, chemo therapy -trauma with diagnosis Cancer of the Cervix -95% cases caused by HPV -curable if caught early -Diagnosis-Pap test -caused by early intercourse, multiple partners -Vaccination programs Cancer of the Prostate -older men (60+ years) -symptoms-urination Cancer of the Testes -young men -early diagnosis-good survival rate 95% -unknown cause The physiology of sexual response Masters and Johnson -Four stages of sexual response (old ideas) -still influenced in the present even though it is old -pioneers -excitement (beginning of sexual arousal, touching/fantasy)plateau(intensification)orgasm(sexual tension relief)resolution(return to normal) -always in that phase/sequence -need basis to compare to Sexual response: psychophysiological response from the body -Two basic physiological processes that occur during these stages -vasocongestion (blood flow, engorgement) -myotonia (muscular tension) Males Sexual Response -blood flow towards genitals -erection -structure (2cavernous bodies, 1tissues) -when sleeping (REM sleep cycles bring along erection) -*neurological cycle* -partial when under anesthetic -asphyxiophilia-when oxygen is blocked (hanging) Nervous system (ANS) -sympathetic (fight or flight) -parasympathetic (rest and digest) Arteries and Veins Rest: 0 (vasoconstriction) 0 Erection: vasodilation blocked -muscles in penis that control diameter of blood vessels (smooth muscles) -control size of arteries Link between autonomic nervous system is between the muscles -parasympathetic connected with vasodilation (relax-erection) Viagra=PDE-5 inhibitor -by Pfizer for cardiovascular disease -side effect -doesn’t bring about desire (psychological) -men have to be aroused not by medication -can last in body for 24 hours -PDE inhibitor-interrupts signal to keep blood flowing to penis -prevents vasoconstriction of arteries, blood from draining -“keeps door open” -Priapism-can’t get rid of erection -will kill the cells (no oxygen) -loss of body part Mechanism of Erection -2 highways (spinal reflex and tactile stimulation) -generally speaking, older men need tactile stimulation of genitals *orgasm and ejaculation are synonymous, the same -2 different Ejaculation has 2 steps >Masters and Johnson 4 steps…E-P-O-R st >1 step-emissions phase-happens just before the orgasm between the plateau phase (fluids between internal sphincter of urethra and external sphincter, urethra bulb)”point of no return”- ejaculatory inevitability 2 -expulsion phase-contractions of muscles, progressively slower and weaker Retrograde Ejaculation -internal sphincter not listening-ejaculate pushed back into bladder. Dry Orgasm. -not dangerous, if happens regularly something wrong with urethral sphincter (internal) Resolution -erection disappears in 2 states -partialunstimulated Refractory period -period of time that a man cannot get aroused again/ejaculate again/erection -main factor depends on AGE, health, fatigue… -17 y.o. 1 min, to 90 y.o. 24 hours In book refractory named “late excitement” Female Sexual Response (M+J) -outer labia “flattens out”, vaginal lubrication “sweating” blood plasma (function-neutralized acidity of vaginal, comfort to intercourse and influenced by levels of estrogen) *testosterone responsible for sexual desire levels* -uterus starts to elevate up and away from vagina (vagina gets longer and wider in inner 2/3) -outer 1/3 swells/becomes narrow (blood) orgasmic platform *sex skin-inner labia increases in size and turns bright red -no “no point of no return” -uterus contracts, anal sphincter and orgasmic platform contracts during orgasm Results: -all orgasms are physiologically similar and triggered by clitoris -multiple orgasms due to no refractory period >women can go through series or orgasms in a short time -multiple from stimulation…vibrators -sexual scriptsend by men ejaculation, one orgasm satisfactory Other Findings “Post M&J” -male ejaculation and orgasm separate processes -M and J thought they were the same -orgasm from limbic system in brain, from genitals -anhedonic ejaculation-without orgasm (no pleasure) -erection and ejaculation different processes -vasodilation vs. vasoconstriction (can ejaculate without erection) -male G-spotpopular culture/concept. Not research -represents prostate -G-spot in Women -spot to zone, sensitive area in anterior wall of vagina -pressure to stimulate -Skene Glands or <> -variable in women -expulsion coming out of urethra -inconclusive (urine with lubrication) -prosthetic secretions -stimulation of the clitoris, not just vaginal stimulation -Coulson-all orgasms are clitoral Kaplan’s Triphasic Model: -Sexual desire -sexual interest -without = mechanical *Chlamydia – most popular in youth of Ottawa, Ontario. -No condom-what can explain? Government education (well informed) -Most STI’s are treatable, on the pill -feeling of it, allergic to latex -wrappers tough to open… -age group, false sense of security (invincible), under the influence -self-serving bias-perception of low prevalence -fear of social judgmentuse of condom=poor character -oral contraception=more preoccupied with birth control then STI prevention -Stereotypes/Prejudices-same sex, Male -Don’t want to kill the mood-have to think, medical, breaks standard “script”, less enjoyable. -Use of drugs or alcohol (impaired judgment)-cog. Logic, irrational thinking -long term relationship (presumed monogamy) trust, commitment -new contact Week 5: Oct 2 Socionormative ideas about sex Sexual dysfunction Exam review (7-945pm) next week -“social scripts” -going to a restaurant, going to class, sex… -normal -sexual scripts (ideas, sequence, behaviors) -theory (script) -what to say, what to do, how to… -heterocentric-sexual scripts (Socionormative sexual script) -based on hetero sexual norms -“Didjacum” model (orgasm centered model) desirestouchingoral stimulationintercourse (PVI)Orgasm (achieve) -foreplay, sex=goal is orgasm (goal oriented O) -Performance based model (early orgasm=failure) -fear of failure creates performance anxiety (body won’t respond right in the context) -Spectatoring effect port performance anxiety-no longer in body (in head) -detached from experience-too much in headsexual problems (vicious cycle) -i.e. car accident victim, mental limitations -Based on movies, porn, peers, media -building up to, working towards -Origin: Reproduction, how to make a baby Pros: -facilitates conception -with new partner, can rely on it (everyone knows it/expectation) -beginning of sexual exp. Reassuring -don’t have to talk about it, just do it=awkward, judgment -eroticized silence -misinterpret nonverbal actions -satisfying Cons: -Normal-deviate-abnormal (seen as weird, verted, strange…) -limited to one orgasm (experiencing the one orgasm) -linear model (beginning end) -limits communication -heterocentric  reproduction -exclusion: same sex partners - physical limitations, medical limitations, medications ABLEISTS -stereotypes based on social-normative sex (penetration=O) -Phallocentric-women sexual response -expecting women are going to find pleasure through erect penis=penetration -enormous pressure on males to keep erection Alternative model (Pleasure centered model)=goal -“Circular” (touching, erections, desire, intercourse, lustful looks, orgasm, kissing, ejaculation, oral st., caressing, fill in blanks) -no defined beginning or end -centered with PLEASURE (erotic, sensual, intimate…) -all people can have sexual experiences no matter orientation or abilities -not predetermined so it encourages communication -creativity=new experiencescommunication -bodily functions secondary to pleasure -what mindset you’re in -easily attainable Sexual Disorders/dysfunction -Common-experience sometime in life -criteria -been there for a while-6 months (DSM) -personal distress/conflict within relationship -“if its not a problem, its not a problem” DSM-medical model on human sexuality -medical model book -diagnosis/classification of problems (mental health) -sexual (gender identity disorder, paraphilia, dysfunction) -Dysfunction-primary, secondary/generalized or situational -primary=beginning of sexual experiences -secondary=dysfunction appears after normal functioning -situational=context where person experiences dysfunction -i.e. orgasm with self but can’t with partner -generalized=across all situations -i.e. cant orgasm (female) -can point out causal factors (biological cause?-orgasm with mistress but not wife) -desire, excitement, orgasm, pain -ways they organized in DSM -Desire -Hypoactive sexual desire-inhibited or low sexual desire -discrepancy of sexual desire-partners have considerably different levels of sexual desire -Differences from frequency, more/less (difference in partners)-back to normal after “honeymoon” phase -Polarization-person who wants less and wants more=polarize
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