Class Notes (808,754)
Canada (493,378)
Psychology (3,899)
PSY3136 (81)
Lecture 18

PSY3136 Lecture 18: Later Language Development

3 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Ottawa
Christopher Fennell

LS18 Later Language Development Phonetics: perception of speech sounds solidified by 1 Phonology: relationship between speech sounds to indicate meaning is solidified by 1.5 Does anything happen beyond this? Some contrasts between speech sounds continue to be refined for clearer categorization. Phonological Memory and Awareness i. Onset (the first sound of the word) and rhyming awareness is solidified by 3-4 years. ii. Syllable and phoneme counting, which is related to phoneme awareness solidifies by six, at age five 20% of children can do this task Onset is dependent on reading experience and natural language development. Phonological Production - Increased ease with complex clusters (hard things to pronounce, especially if they contain many consonants or have multiple syllables). - Accents: mutable and can change over the course of development. Peers contribute to this in early school years, and we adopt the speech sounds of our peers. - Dialects: semantically related rather than just changing the sounds of speech - accent and dialects can function as register, the social pressure to fit in, and to assert one’s identity Lexicon in Later Development: there is a four-fold increase in the amount of words an individual knows between grades one and five - continues to develop past early schooling - - can be measured by multiple choice (GRE, LSAT, MCAT) new words are complex and add to words which you already have (you probably have the the word believe before the word unbelievable) - there is more specialized words in later lexical development, like the word happy, develops into ecstatic or joyous Inflectional Rules: additions to vocabulary are more morphologically complex, rarer, and more specialized in meaning. - young children knew inflectional rules differ from derivation, for example the fact that things that eats rats are a rat-eaters rather than rats-eater, thus the creation of new words occurs when they have substantial inflectional rules - understanding derivations become better over time: starting at 5 and not being complete until adulthood Word Formation Processes (with nonsense items): showing that individuals could build new words, not just recognize them. Preschoolers are bad at this task, but adults and adolescents are at similar levels of competence. For example: This is a wugg. Here is his house. What is it? An adult would say a wuggian or a wuggery, but a child will compensate with a known skill such as compounding and say “a wugg’s house”. Word Learning Fast Mapping: the ability to map a referent on to a label, pairing an object and a word in less than five instances in normal. If you have this by preschool age, direct reference is fast mapping when it is directly presented to you. Shortening the time you need to learn a word to one instance. Incidental Learning: Starting at five children begin to get better at relying on this. Incidental learning is learning an object by picking up on situations in the environment. (Like a parent saying “where are my keys” and then finding them, the child then just learned the word keys through incidental learning. QUIL: Quick Incidental Learning - a three year old would not understand incidental learning or would not be able to acquire words this way, but a six year old would Contextual Learning: learning a word from the context of other words. (ex. “My husband is such a bibliophile, I am not happy about all our disposable income being spent at Chapters.” The listener can then understand, through context, that the word biblophage means someone who really likes books.) Pragmatics: language within the contexts it is used. Turn taking in conversation is evident by age one, but relevant dialogue increases between ages seven and ten. School age children produce sentences which make sense for communicative purposes. Five year olds accept and produce inadequate messages due to poor comprehension modelling: a child will not realize that a passage is incomprehensible and will not ask for clarification or more information. Children also don’t check themselves and revise in speech. This skill increases with age, however adults still do this sometimes — like reading a textbook but not getting any meaning from it. Narratives → story grammar test: children were given a picture book with no words, and told to make up a story. Children under five told stories which were fragmented, action based, and disconnected. Full episodes begin at six, and internal motives and mental states of characters are able to be determined by age 8. As children age, the speak less in collective monologues with one another and more frequently engage in back-and-forth conversation. (Figure indicates the percentage of conversation-related terms used in collective monologues as children age.) Non-Literal Language Development Idioms: proverbs which are language or subculture specific (“it’s raining cats and dogs”) Metaphor: relating two unrelated things (“her hair was golden”) Irony: saying something that isn’t related or sarcastic → These are first present in children’s speech at 2 but not adult-like usage until 14. Up until age seven we use magical or literal interpretations rather than metaphor, they will not understand what they are saying but they will know when to say it (like swear words). Schooling Effects on Language Development: develops more r
More Less

Related notes for PSY3136

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.