PERSONALITY – FEBRUARY 12
- Third approach between psychoanalysis and behaviourism
- Healthy side, not just abnormal
- Missing the most important part – person themselves, not just individual behaviour.
- Admitted unconscious side, but focused more on the conscious side.
Hierarchy of Needs
- Two basic kinds of motives
- Deficiency motive/need
Lack of some needed object
Basic need like hunger and thirst
• Satisfied when object has been obtained.
Sometimes, only need considered.
• Ex. Freud w/ tension reduction.
- Growth need
Giving love to another person, developing one’s potential.
Not satisfied when object is found.
• (Continual process)
- Five basic categories of needs:
1. Physiological needs
Some people’s lives still revolve around getting basic needs.
2. Safety needs
Structure and order, security – free from chaos and fear.
Most evident when stability is threatened, destruction is eminent.
• Put up with unhappy marriage to avoid instability.
3. Belongingness and love needs
a. D love
• Based on deficiency
o Need this to satisfy emptiness.
o Taking love to fulfil this, as opposed to giving it
b. B love
• Based on growth
o Giving and growing together.
o Orientation towards affectionate relationships.
4. Esteem needs
a. Need for competence, achievement mastery, etc.
• Needs to be respect that we actually deserve, not obtained by cheating or lying.
o Feel like worthwhile people, deserving.
Thwarting these needs = inferiority
b. Need for admiration
• Self-esteem and from others.
5. Need for self-actualization
• Only a fraction of people reach this ‘ultimate’need.
• Development of self.
• All lower level needs, we ask what the meaning of life is, what we want from it.
- Admits five-tier needs over-simplify behaviour. - Sometimes esteem can be reversed with the love need.
- Needs don’t have to be satisfied to 100%, but need to satisfy at least a certain amount.
- Could change between culture.
Win self-esteem or self-respect from different places in different cultures.
What is valued.
Sexual desires both physiological and belongingness and love need.
Rogers and Maslow are very similar in self-actualized people
- Efficient and accurate in perceiving reality
- Accepting of themselves, of other people, and of nature.
- Are spontaneous