- Love = positive way
- Negative = dom or submission
- Feeling of belonging
- Feel at home in the world
o Isolation and helplessness with evolution and loss of ‘home’.
- Productive :
o Independent from parents (particularly mother)
o Actively/creatively relate to the world.
Tied to world instead of parents,
o Fixation, unwillingness to move beyond mother, afraid to take the next step.
Sense of Identity
- Sense of entity
o Form concept of self.
o Collectivist societies, not as individuals apart from the group. (More primitive)
o Lean towards more individualistic
- (+) Creative movement towards individual
- (-) Conforming to group.
Frame of Orientation (road map)
- Need of way to get back
- Enables to organise via stimuli
- Make sense of events and phenomena
- Common sense = consistent with frame of orientation
- No goal = not worth much.
o Need final goal or objective.
o Transcend isolated existence.
Confers meaning to life.
- (+) Rational goals
- (-) Irrational goals
Reuniting humans with natural world.
Psychologically unbearable if cannot fulfill these needs, leads to mental illness.
Fulfilled either positively or negatively.
- Torn from nature but still part of the natural world.
- More freedom = more isolated.
o Less freedom – anchored to roles.
Advantages = security, belonging
o More freedom (socially and geographically)
Free from fixed position
More of the experience of the burden.
o Alone in the world.
- “Escape from freedom” o Three primary mechanisms of escape
• Tendency to give up independence of individual, fuse with someone outside
yourself, try to get strength you feel is lacking from yourself.
• Unite with more powerful partner.
• Isolation and aloneness.
• Do away with others,
o nations and individuals.
• Attempt to conform to what is expected of you,
• Become what others want you to be.
o Free from external bonds, fee to act to own will. Confused, thus conform to things that may not be
authentic to self.
- Positive Freedom
o Free and not alone
o Spontaneous full expression of rational and emotional potential.
Eg. Small children, people who have low tendency to conform.
o Successful solution to human dilemma
Part of the world, yet separate as individual.
- Character orientations.
o Relatively permanent way to relate to others.
o Personality = totality of inherited and acquired psychological characteristics.
Acquired: most important = character.
• Substitute for instinct
• Relate to the world in different ways.
• Character Orientations (Non Productive)
Source of good things is outside of themselves.
Only way to relate to world = receive things
• Love, objects, material things
More concerned with receiving things than giving.
• Want to be showered with love, ideas, gifts.
Loyalty, acceptance, trust. (+)
Passivity, submissiveness, lack of self-confidence. (-)
Believe that all good things come from the outside
Take what they want
• Cunning or force to take things from others.
• Steal or plagiarize rather than make something
• Charming and self-confident (+)
• Egocentric, arrogant. (-)
Seek to save what they have already obtained
Keep what they have and don’t let go.
Try to keep the same, preserve Live in the past (Abit like Freud’sAnal character)
• Believed was not because of sexual drive.
Orderly, punctual. (+)
Rigid, compulsive, lack creativity. (-)
Outgrowth of modern commerce
Trade isn’t personal
• Carried out by faceless coorporations
Sees people as commodities
• Value via exchange value.
• Ability to market/sell yourself.
See as in constant demand
• Make others think they are skillful and sellable.
• Need to change to match current fashions/market
• “I am as you desire me to be.”
Fewer positive traits (constantly changing to match what’s
valued at the moment)
Aimless, inconsistent. (-)
Open-mindedness, adaptability. (+)
Working, Loving, Reasoning
Continue through life realising their potential.
Unite with world and other people to overcome isolation.