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Shirley Griffith

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PERSONALITY – JANUARY 29 KAREN HORNEY (CHAPTER 6) Born in Germany Family (Father): - Lost first wife after four children, remarried. - Beliefs of women being inferior, ruled family with iron fist.  This influenced Horney’s theory. - Conflicting feelings about him. Environment: - Women wanted more rights. - She was one of few women who were allowed to go to advanced high school. - One of first female students allowed at Medical school. - Berlin psychoanalytic institute.  New York Psychoanalytic Institute.  Dissatisfied with Freud.  Highly successful society. LikeAdler and Erikson, wanted to take into mind cultural and social influences. - Gives more attention to the social influences than the innate influences.  Views on neurosis and feminine psychology. - Factors in social environment allow child to develop confidence in themselves and other people. - Resolve when parents display predictable and genuine warmth.  Abnormal when environment obstruct child’s normal growth.  Instead of confidence, develop anxiety. • Feel small and insignificant. Basic anxiety: - Abnormal, uncomfortable feeling, pervasive feelings of discomfort. - Neurosis is caused by disturbed human relationships.  Root is found in parent-child relationship. Child Development: - Rejected Freud’s stages of psychosexual development. - Safety and satisfaction.  Consistent, secure environment free of fear. - Abused children experience basic hostility towards parents  Hostile feelings, but also dependent.  Need to repress hostile feelings for survival.  Doesn’t remain isolated, generalises to world = anxiety. Minimize anxiety: - Need to find ways to keep neurosis to a minimum. Correlations exist between irrational beliefs/perceptions of self and psychotherapy. - People with irrational beliefs with themselves often  Are unhappy with themselves.  More likely to have unhappy marriages  Have a hard time problem solving. Concentrated on those who had neurosis vs. healthy individuals (Maslow and Rogers) - 10 Stages. (10 Neurotic Needs)  Toward  Affection or approval  Dominant partner in life (need partner)  Compliant type • Unassertive – afraid if stand up for self, lose affection.  Self-effacing • “If I give in, I won’t be hurt.”  Need to feel important to others/lean on them.  Helpless/compliant.  Seek accommodation to others, at any price  Against  Expansive – to be in control.  All in it for themselves • Do it more effectively than anyone else.  Capable of acting friendly/polite • Always a means to an end.  Exaggerated needs to prestige, power – ambition.  Implicitly distrust intentions and feelings of others.  Hypercompetitiveness. • Never give an inch in conflict. • Avoid losing at any cost (in all situations).  Away  Self-sufficiency, Independence.  Detached-type.  Withdraw, nothing can hurt me.  Emotional distance between themselves and other people.  Not get emotionally involved in any way.  Affection, Conflict – anything. • Draw circle around themselves, no one can get past.  Isolation • Resignation. o Free oneself from the risk involved with people  Avoider, onlooker. • Hypersensitive to someone trying to influence you. Excessive needs for Shown in behaviour Affection and approval Striving to be liked and pleasing to others, to live up to the expectations of others, dreading self-assertion and hostility. Center of gravity = other people, not themselves. Other’s judgements are all that matter. Having a “partner” Seeking to be taken over by another, through “love”; dreading being left alone. Affiliated with protected from all danger, all needs to be fulfilled. Dread of desertion. Narrowly restricting one’s life Trying to be inconspicuous, undemanding, and modest; contented with little. Avoiding defeat by simply not trying. Restricting ambition and wishes. Power Seeking domination and control over others; dreading weakness. Craved for own-sake. Disrespect for others’ dignity/feelings. Exploiting Others Taking advantage of others, using others, dreading being “stupid”. Scared of being taken advantage of, but don’t care to about taking advantage of people. Others evaluated on their usefulness. Social recognition or prestige Seeking public acceptance, dreading being humiliated. Want to be recognised – fame/prestige.All things are evaluated according to prest
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