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September 9, 2013 Intro to Governance.docx

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Public Administration
Joseph Roman

September 9, 2013 Explaining the turn to governance  Governance has only become part of the regular vocab in the last 2 decades Fiscal Crisis of the State  The turn to governance reflects the change in the 1970s o Crisis in how the state governs  Governments runs up to limits; governments less and less able to meet demands  End post-war era, golden age of capitalism (huge econ boom, wages above inflation)  Big recession hit, government revenues fall:  Profits fallen, bankruptcy; less wages to tax, less purchase, less consumption to tax Disillusion with Politics  Citizens less and less confident in govt’s ability to provide services; faith in politics diminishes  Events such as Nixon water gate diminishes confidence o Rise of Neo-Liberalism in reaction to the above  Government should promote markets  Belief in deregulation and tax cuts  The right saw this as a solution to what they saw as an overloaded state, believed in minimalist state  These ideas were around since the 30s and 40s, but picked up steam in the 70s, culminates in the election of Thatcher, Reagan, Mulroney (though the turn began with Trudeau) o Shift in culture toward individualism o Political pressure on the national stage, originating above (globalisation) and below it  Deregulation of financial market  Elimination of capital control begins in the 70s (money moveable)  Rise of free trade agreements  state action is part of globlisn, but new layer of pressure from above nation states  Regional pressure from below the national state – ie. Independence movements  Emergence of subnational economic regions, acting more aggressively o Ie. Ontario and Alberta: why should we pay for people in other provinces that aren’t producing the same amount of tax revenue? o Don’t want to share prosperity o West Munich, South of England  Nations experience Gulliver effect  Too large to solve small problems, too small to solve large problems o Governments need new ways to solve problems (one size fits all solutions no longer sufficed) – result: turn to governance Flexibility of Governance o Why? – Envision a more flexible type of government that can adapt to rapid changes  Ie. markets now change very rapidly due to advances in technology o Some literature say today we are seeing a decline of the state  However, it is a transformation of the state  This way of governing allowing it to adapt to change Why governance matters and understanding what governance is 1. Turns our attention back to how people are governed 2. Governance helps us see power relationally  Helps us contextualize things  How authority is  See limits of that authority and power  See that power is negotiation, there is no absolute power  Power is relational and always contextual Governance is often used as a synonym for government, but they are very different things Governance is a buzz word. In order to define governance, you have to first define government. Government  Decision making body that carries out the rules and regulations of a state  Formal and institutional processes that operates at the state level to facilitate public action, maintains public order Governance  Concerned for the ordered conditions of rule and collective action  Coordination of socio-political systems  How, rather than why, we arrive at the outcomes we arrive at o When this aspect is viewed, it is very much process based  Steering o How do governments and state interact with their ever changing national and international environment? o Rarely see state in terms of resources they command and how they deploy them  Their deployment of resources affect the outcome (for whom, and for what reason they deploy resources affects outcome)  Studies: draws on actors beyond government and how they are involved in the process of ruling, ruling is not always a top down process (talk to business groups, social party activist, environmental activist, media)  State actors are involved in policy pr
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