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7 - Public Administration and Human Resources Management.doc

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University of Ottawa
Public Administration
Frank Ohemeng

1 Public Administration and Human Resources Management Outline - Explaining what human resource management is - The concept of merit in human resource management - The legislative and organisational environment within which human resources management is set - The major processes involved in human resource management - The concept and practice of career public service - Human resource management in the era of smaller government Questions - What is human resource management? - How is human resources management different from personnel administration? - What are the differences between the merit system and the merit principle? - What are the key human resource management issues facing governments today - How important is training and development in a public sector faced with diminished resources? - What are the challenges facing the implementation of the merit system in Canada? What people in the bureaucracy do is to serve two masters: 1. The politician - Bureaucracy serves politicians by providing them policy advice. - Bureaucracy takes instructions from the politicians and implements them. - Bureacracy provides answers to questions posed to ministers in parliament during question period. 2. The citizenry - Bureaucrats provide services, service delivery to citizens. - Service deliver may be in the form of actual delivery, directly. - Example: Canada post directly delivers our mail. - Some service delivery is done indirectly – through contracting out to a private organization. - Example: garbage collection - But bureaucrats are still involved. They must write a contract agreement for the service. - Government must monitor the delivery, are they abiding by the contract? - 2 Human Resources Management (HRM) - HRM is the management of work and people towards desired ends. - HRM can be defined as a combination of the process-oriented activities involved in managing workers and the strategic functions involved in ensuring that HRM processes are conducive to supporting the achievement of an organization’s mandate. - HRM involves processes from recruiting staff to keeping or parting ways with them. - A strategic approach to managing employment relations which emphasizes the leveraging people’s capabilities is a critical to achieving competitive advantage, this being achieved through a distinctive set of integrated employment policies, programmes and practices. - For a workplace to function, the work needs to be performed. HRM and Personnel Administration - Personnel administration is mainly directed at the organization's employees: finding and training them, arranging for them to be paid, explaining management’s expectations, justifying management’s actions, satisfying employee’s work related needs, dealing with the problems and seeking to modify management action that could produce unwelcome employee responses. - Personnel administration is too narrow. - HRM is broader. Personnel Administration Personnel administration is contingent upon a range of environmental factors, including: 1. The ownership, sector, size, tradition and stage of development of an organization 2. The political, economic, social, technological, international and legal contexts 3. The degree of stability or turbulence of the environment 4. The philosophy of people management held by senior executives 5. The competence and capacity of the organization to resource people effectively. From Personnel Management to HRM 1. The ideological attack on welfare Keynesianism and “big government” in the context of creeping globalization and the changing international economic environment. 2. The attack on public sector trade unions and professional associations. 3. Not linking rewards to performance or productivity. 3 4. Public services dominated by either generalist administrators or professionals and were not managed like the private sector. Core Ideas of HRM 1. People are an organisation’s most important resource and the key to its source. 2. People are an asset, and investment in “human capital” is good business. The capital must be maintained and developed to ensure the full exploitation of its potential value. 3. Human resources strategy must be integrated with business strategy to ensure the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. 4. Employees must be committed to the organization’s mission, goals, and objectives and to its values to ensure “business” success. 5. The right to manage is legitimatized by the need for the organization to survive in competitive environments and to achieve its goals and objectives. HRM Functions 1. Planning - Preparing forecasts of future human resource needs in the light of an organizations environment, mission and objectives, strategies, and internal strengths and weaknesses, including its structure. 2. Integrating - It is important to link, to integrate, human resource management with the strategic management processes of the organization and coordinate human resource practices to achieve the organization’s desired goals. 3. Staffing - Obtaining people with the appropriate skills, abilities, knowledge, and experience to fill jobs in the organization. - Key practices are: HR planning, job analysis, recruitment and selection. 4. Developing - Analyzing learning requirements to ensure that employees possess the knowledge and skills to perform well in their jobs or to advance in the organisation. 5. Motivating - The design and administration of reward systems. - HR practices include: job evaluation, performance appraisal, pay and benefits. 6. Designing - Designing and maintaining work systems that are safe and promote employee health, and workplace wellness in order to attract and retain a competent workforce, and comply with all the rules and regulations set up by government and within the organisation. 4 7. Managing Relations - A range of practices, processes, and structures that build cooperative relationships among employees. - Also includes employee participation schemes in the workplace. 8. Managing change - Involves helping other to envision the future, communicating vision, diagnosing and changing mindsets and mental modals, certain clear expectation of performance and developing the capability to reorganise people and reallocate other resources. 9. Evaluating - Designing the procedures and processes that measure, evaluate, and communicate the value added of HR practices and entire HR systems to the organization. XTheories of HRM a. Universalistic b. Organisational Development c. Contingency d. Critical Human Resource Management Universalistic - The simplest form to understand HRM. - B
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