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Lecture 3

PAP2320WEEK 3.docx

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Department
Public Administration
Course
PAP2320
Professor
Roger Rickwood
Semester
Winter

Description
WEEK 3January2014823 PM Inwood 6077 7498 Theories of OrganizationPerspectives on Bureaucratic OrganizationPublic bureaucracy organizing principle of governmentOrganization theory originated from studies about how to improve the management of private sector organizations so associated with schools of business managementOrganization theory talks about our need to understand what people do how things get done and why we have organizationsTheory set of propositions which seek to explain or predict somethingOrganizational shift towards rationality impersonality and efficiency how to marry with administrative values such as democracy and fairnessClassic TheoristsPondered the effect on the power structure of society of the development of large scale organizationsKarl MarxFocused on class conflict and alienation in his study of bureaucracybureaucracy helped pave way for capitalism there to maintain status quo as seen when it reverted to its role of supporting the ruling interests of societyInfluenced by Hegel bureaucracy represents a bridge between state and civil societybureaucracy represented a bridge between the state and civil societythe state represented the overall general interestBureaucracy medium through which transformation of the particular interest into general interest takes placeBureaucracyuniversal class par excellence because it represented the generalized communal interest of alStategeneral common interest universal class medium through which particular interest could be transformedRejected by Marx state bureaucracy no representation of general will but people in a set of relationships involving the exercise of power bureaucracy motivated by the desire to climb the ladder for power status and prestigeHierarchal structure meant that abuse from lower officials is redressed by superiorsDisagreed with bureaucracy as the universal element in society interests arent universal it is a special interest not above personal interest ie power and positionsRejected by Marx Hierarchy more likely to abuse citizens than lower officialsHierarchy leads to punishment of officials who commit offences against the hierarchy itself and protects the official when the hierarchy commits an offence against the peopleAlienationBureaucracyprimary institution responsible for alienationOccurs between citizens and bureaucracy and within bureaucracyThe true nature of bureaucracy is hidden from itself so that those occupying the jobs view themselves as essential instead of oppressive image sustained by hierarchy discipline and authority which promote alienationBureaucracy stifles workers imagination and initiative while reinforcing the fear of taking any responsibility and riskCapitalist society marked by class conflict in which capitalist oppresses and exploits the working for profitRole of bureaucracy in capitalist society maintain the class distinctions and domination that sustained the rule of the business class mask domination by presenting itself as general interest and maintained by autonomy pg 63The state is relatively autonomous from capitalist class but serves its long term interestsUsing autonomy freedom of action from the ruling business class to mask dominationMay not appear to counter business class but bureaucracy always acts on the long term interest of the capitalist class since purpose is to sustain power to dominant classBureaucracy has own interests focused on own survival and career building 1Society and bureaucrats suffer from alienation derived by bureaucratic hierarchal 2structureSaw bureaucracy as one of the primary institutions responsible for alienation as it is felt by citizens as distant impersonal and oppressive also occurs within bureaucracy nature hidden from itself so that workers view their jobs as essential instead of parasitic sustained by hierarchy discipline and authorityClass struggle results in revolution leading to classless society in which state 1and bureaucracy will gradually wither awaywanted communism class exploitation ends no need for institutions that sustained itCriticismsDidnt elaborate on ideasNeoMarxists claim that any state policy that assists capital is evidence of the state serving the capitalist class and any that serve working class serves the interests of the capital by legitimizing the capitalist systemArgue that bureaucracy is a tool of capitalist class but that its become too powerfulNeoMarxistsConsider that modern capitalists has 2 functionsTo foster capital accumulation state passes policies that make it possible for capitalist enterprises to make profits ex low corporate tax rates subsidies grantsEnsure that the working class doesnt rise up and revolt against dominant classState passes policies of legitimation to appease working class without interfering in accumulation ex social welfare policiesState may also use force so that working class compliesDivided over the nature of the state and its role in support capitalism
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