SOC 1101 Lecture 2
- Socially constructed (made by humans, if something is made naturally, it is
- Material (made of atoms)/Non-Material (mental: song’s, stories, values,
- Complex (All cultures contain a large number of mat/non-mat factors)
- Historical/Cumulative (All culture comes from the past. Every generation
modifies culture, adding and subtracting to it, making it cumulative)
- Learned/Shared (you learn it through personal interaction, it is not in our
DNA, we share it)
- Varies (From place to place. There is no such thing as a world culture.
Because environments vary around the world, so does culture).
R. Descartes – biases
Says that common sense comes from three different sources;
a. When we are young, we have not yet developed the ability to think
critically. We are unable to judge, so when someone tells us
something, is stays deep into our psyche.
a. Writing in the 17th century,** not someone who has power over
you, but someone who knows more than you. All people who went
to the Cathedral schools read Aristotle, who was thought to be the
most important thinker that God revealed all the truths to. He was
an authority. We have an inclination to believe what people say
who we believe know better than we do. Today that might be our
politicians, the news/newspaper, television, media, etc..
a. We have an inclination to believe the things that are in our faith.
We believe those things that are in our interest. (From a higher
Errors in reasoning
1. Selective Observations
a. Come up with an idea and then find facts that support the idea.
You do not look at all the facts, only the ones that support your
a. From a very small number of cases, you generalize to the larger
case. You need to have a certain number of cases to generalize.
These people don’t follow these rules. You find errors in reasoning.