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SOC1101 Lecture 2.docx

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Willow Scobie

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SOC 1101 Lecture 2 Culture - Socially constructed (made by humans, if something is made naturally, it is not culture) - Material (made of atoms)/Non-Material (mental: song’s, stories, values, religion) - Complex (All cultures contain a large number of mat/non-mat factors) - Historical/Cumulative (All culture comes from the past. Every generation modifies culture, adding and subtracting to it, making it cumulative) - Learned/Shared (you learn it through personal interaction, it is not in our DNA, we share it) - Varies (From place to place. There is no such thing as a world culture. Because environments vary around the world, so does culture). R. Descartes – biases Says that common sense comes from three different sources; 1. Childhood a. When we are young, we have not yet developed the ability to think critically. We are unable to judge, so when someone tells us something, is stays deep into our psyche. 2. Authorities th a. Writing in the 17 century,** not someone who has power over you, but someone who knows more than you. All people who went to the Cathedral schools read Aristotle, who was thought to be the most important thinker that God revealed all the truths to. He was an authority. We have an inclination to believe what people say who we believe know better than we do. Today that might be our politicians, the news/newspaper, television, media, etc.. 3. “Appetites” a. We have an inclination to believe the things that are in our faith. We believe those things that are in our interest. (From a higher power?) Errors in reasoning 1. Selective Observations a. Come up with an idea and then find facts that support the idea. You do not look at all the facts, only the ones that support your idea. 2. Overgeneralizations a. From a very small number of cases, you generalize to the larger case. You need to have a certain number of ca
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