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SOC2106 (138)

Lecture 5

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University of Ottawa
Fatemeh Givechian

Lecture 5 – January 25 2013 Durkheim (1858-1917) - Studied philosophy and history - Some call him the founder of sociology (after Augustus Comte) - Cared about the relationship between individuals and society - Solitarty: when an individual is related to the society and they help each other - Two types of societies o Traditional  Collective consciousness  Mechanical solidarity o Modern society  Individualistic consciousness  Organic solidarity – society becomes more populated and there is different languages, and jobs - Main idea: when societies reach the point of lawless in anomie we have deviance and social problems, because the organic state cannot exist Robert Morten (1910-2003) - In dialogue with Freud and Durkheim - When society reaches a point where there is lawlessness, we have an increase in deviance and social problems - Freud and Durkheim believe society that ?? - Freud: aggressiveness is in our biological nature - Durkheim: it is in society, society should come back to the normal situation when things are out of hand - Morten: disagrees, believes society causes deviance and social problems, the way society is built, recommends things, advertises values, these all cause problems - Talks about goals and means – society gives us goals, but does not provide us with enough mean to reach those goals, and due to this deviance occurs - Believes we have 5 types of people (anomie theory, sometimes called strain theory, because society puts a strain on people, sometimes called social structure theory or social organization theory because the factor or cause of deviance is due to the organization / structure of society) o Conformity – to society, they have the same goals and the same means, middle and upper class people, so they are successful o Innovative – the ones who have the same goal of success, but not the same means, and because they lack the means they are deviant to reach those girls (lower class) o Ritualistic – they do not have the same goals because they think the goal of success is ??, but they have the means o Retreatism – they do not have the same goals or means, the ones who rely on drugs and who retreat from the society, they don’t care about what is going on or about success o Rebels – they rebel in the society and try to find new goals and new means even though they have the goals and the means - Talks about society, society wants us to be successful but does not give us what we need to become successful, he doesn’t talk about lawlessness he talks about conflict - Durkheim sees anomie as something bad, Morten thinks it can be bad but it can also be creative - Morten: anomie does not mean lawlessness, but conflict of values - Morten: anomie is not always destructive, but it can be constructive and creative - Society gives us the reason to be deviant Albert Cohen - 1955 he wrong a book called Delinquent boys - Merton: goal, means, gap leads to deviance and social problems, success as something that society recommends - Cohen omits the word success and puts in the word status - He agrees with goal, means, gap, but he says that the lower class people go to middle class institutions, and they don’t feel associated with the middle cl
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