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ANT101H5 Lecture Notes - Lactose Intolerance, Dual Inheritance Theory, Allele Frequency

Course Code
Heather Miller

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ANT101 Intro to Anthropology
Week 1 January 9, 2013 Chapter 1
tests: mostly big pic, textbook has website but the questions on it are much more
detailed then lec
if on lecture, lab, and textbook will definitely be on test
if jus 2 then likely it will be on test
if jus 1 then not that likely
Biolcultural approach in anthropology
says biology and culture are both important in understanding humans and
evolution, human behavior.
a) What is culture? is all aspects of human beliefs, material culture, and behavior
Culture is learned and its transmitted by non biological means
b) Enculturation is a process by which individuals learn the cultural beliefs and
values of society and the way these values and beliefs are transmitting
c) Evolution is the biological changes in the genetic structure of a population from
one generation to the next. it does includes speciation (development of new
species) as well as smaller and larger changes
Biocultural evolution is the way biology and culture interact and interacted to
affect the way humans have evolved
Biocultural Adaptation refers to physiological or behavior adjustments made by
organisms (humans in this case) in response to the environment , and that
environment can either be physical or cultural
Scientific Method
theory- is a well estbd. and well accepted hypothesis and involves 3 things. 1)
has been well supported by testing 2. explains all existing facts 3) can provide
predictions about new data
Week 2 January 14, 2013
Necessary Background Developments
a) lyell is important for 2 reasons. 1 for uniformitirianism ( observed that
things and objects that happened in the past like can be compared to present
time and are the same) 2. time depth of earth (showed earth is many millions
years old not thousands)
b) Classification (Taxonomy)
c) Change within species over time
d) experimental science and hypothesis testing
e) Attempts to explain evolutionary processes, stressing effects of
environmental change

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Differences between lamark and Darwin-wallace
Lamark- inheritance of aqquired characteristics requires variation to arise when it
is needed
Darwin- Wallace- theory of natural selection- evo requires that variation already
exists. these guys actually convincingly put forth a mechanism for evolution that
is still being used today. they said evo by natural selction and differential
reproductive success in individuals leads to changes in the population. unit of
natural selec is individual, unit of evo is the population.
**read text p 30-31**
Summary of mechanism of evolutionary change by natural selection. 1. trait must
be inherited. 2. must be variation in trait within the population. 3. fitness is
RELATIVE reproductive success, changes as environment changes
Reproductive fitness and success is not only about survival of individuals but also
1. reprod. to produce offsprings and 2. survival of offspring to reproduce
Background Biology: Cells and DNA
2 types of cells in body a) gametes zygote b) somatic cells
DNA made up of backbone, sugar bases, and base pairs
2 functions of dna, protein synt. and replication
triplet codes are the same for all organisms
difference between organisms has none to do wid wat their dna is made up of but
rather how its organized.
Week 2 January 16, 2013
gene is a sequence of DNA. 1. regulatory genes and 2. Mutations ( a change in
the DNA, either a change in the sequence of bases or a change in the structure
and number of chromosomes)
genes and mutations are important cuz they order for proteins.
protesins are important cuz they create structure of organism, muscles, nerves,
affect regulation of systems etc.
Week 3 January 23, 2013- human variation
midterm is same format as last yrs, 35 m.c and maybe matching,
more variation within populations then between them-
most characteristics are continually variation, they are not just lended to u

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2 patterns for human variation studies
you look at variations in allele frequency between and within pops
you also look at the adaptive significance of genotypic and phenotypic variation
Variation in allele frequency
it studies polymorphisms- more than 1 allele ie lactose intolerance
uses hardy weinburg equilibrium equation- distribution of alleles, ideal conditions
multivariate approaches (statistics)
Week 4- January 28, 2013
Wednesday January 16th, 2013 Lecture 4/readings chapter 3
Two types of cells in body
1. Somatic cells: all cells in body except those involved with reproduction
2. Gametes -> zygote: reproductive cells: egg cells (F) sperm cells (M)
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
- Nucleotides: basic units of the DNA molecule, composed of a sugar,
phosphate unit and one of four DNA bases
Two functions: replication and protein synthesis
Protein Synthesis
- Important job for the DNA, to direct the manufacture of proteins within
the cell
Gene: sequence of DNA
1. Regulatory genes: genes that code fir the production of proteins that
can influence the action of other genes. Many are active only during
certain stages of development.
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