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ANT241Y5 (28)
Lecture 16

Lecture 16

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Alexander Von Gernet

Part C – MODERN ISSUES Lecture 16: Treaties (survey of land cession agreements throughout Canada) - Treaties - Only one half of the lands of Canada were sold by Indians through a land cession or treaty - Quebec (lower Canada) - French did not recognize Indian title - First Indian reserves: seigneurial grants to missionaries for Indians - British take over from French in 1760 - shortly after the battle of the Plains of Abraham (in Quebec city) – battle between British and French - Royal Proclamation of 1763 - Indian territory  the vast Indian reserve set up by the British - a unilateral proclamation by the British (by the King)-> we are going to make a line between the Natives and the newcomers. Rewarding the natives who are with us in battle by giving them a reserve. Was protected from settlers/newcomers. By law, couldn’t enter the Indian Territory unless you were a fur trader or had military outpost there. - the 13 colonies were excluded - - Rupert’s land was also excluded. - Nova Scotia was excluded - Lower Canada (modern southern Quebec) was excluded from Indian Territory - Upper Canada (modern southern Ontario) was included in Indian territory - Indian land could be purchased, but not privately - Indian land could only be purchased by Crown at public meeting -Aboriginal party has to be fully represented as well – all would have to attend meeting and come to an agreement – didn’t have to sell if they didn’t want to. Deal could be reached between officials of aboriginal party and the official representative of the crown. - Treaty text – everything has to be written down, and copies preserved so there are no questions in the future. -usually include boundaries of land, and how much the land is for. - Early Treaties in Upper Canada - Land Cession treaty – grant went to Iroquois interest and they got the land?? - Modern issue: -Six Nations Claims (e.g. Caledonia) – - Ontario (Upper Canada) - early treaties not recorded properly - Blanks to be filled in later - Vague descriptions - 1923 Williams “Clean-up” Treaty -> cleans up messy parts of Ontario treaty.. - Modern issue: claim that 1923 treaty was misrepresented  -
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