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Lecture

March 18th 2013.doc

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT331H5
Professor
..
Semester
Fall

Description
Summary article What is the objective of the article? read article jot what you remember th ANT331H5S Human Reproductive Competition March 18 , 2013 Cross cultural Universals of human society • Monogamous relationships through repeated reproductive episodes o Biparental care o marriage • Stable mateships within a social network of other relationships o Kinship – idea of recognition of individuals that are more closely related than other individuals o Food sharing & economic networks  Youngest don’t usually have to provide resources HUMAN KINSHIP Universal human principle Commonalities • Everyone has a concept of close and distant kin • Kinship is understood in terms of genealogical descent or common ancestor • May be cultural & biological Is Kinship a nepotistic strategy to maximize inclusive fitness?\ - Is it an example of maximizing fitness? • Mitigates conflict o Between relatives theres increase in co-operation o Reduction in conflicts • Involves cooperation Problems: • Rarely correlates directly with genetic relatedness • May be a cultural (not a biological) relationship Human Life History Economic networks & food sharing • Postreproductive people contribute through childcare • Adoption of nonbiological children • Hunter & Gatherer roots Look at present hunter gatherer societies E.g. !Kung San, SW Kalahari (Richard Lee & Nancy Howell) - lived in nuclear familes, recognized polygamy, didn’t practice it - Human Fertility The invention of agriculture - Increase of social stratification - Increase of polygamy - Increase in male reproductive variance - Increased male to male competition - Increased infant mortality • New material wealth • Domestication of plants & animals • Better maternal nutrition Lactation anovulation (amenorrhea) Menstrual cycle polygyny Socioeconomic status Marriage: formal alliance between the sexes Universal characteristics • Some degree of mutual obligation • Some persistence in time • Some formalized societal sanction • Sexual access (usually exclusive) • Some form of legitimization for the status of offspring Polygynous Marriage • Majority of human societies sanction polygyny • Sororal polygyny: wives are sisters • Increased with agriculture o Social stratification o Disenfranchised celibate men Polyandrous marriage Rare Found in 2 main parts of the world 1. Nigeria 2. Indian subcontinent (e.g. P
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