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March 18th 2013.doc

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Summary article What is the objective of the article? read article jot what you remember th ANT331H5S Human Reproductive Competition March 18 , 2013 Cross cultural Universals of human society • Monogamous relationships through repeated reproductive episodes o Biparental care o marriage • Stable mateships within a social network of other relationships o Kinship – idea of recognition of individuals that are more closely related than other individuals o Food sharing & economic networks  Youngest don’t usually have to provide resources HUMAN KINSHIP Universal human principle Commonalities • Everyone has a concept of close and distant kin • Kinship is understood in terms of genealogical descent or common ancestor • May be cultural & biological Is Kinship a nepotistic strategy to maximize inclusive fitness?\ - Is it an example of maximizing fitness? • Mitigates conflict o Between relatives theres increase in co-operation o Reduction in conflicts • Involves cooperation Problems: • Rarely correlates directly with genetic relatedness • May be a cultural (not a biological) relationship Human Life History Economic networks & food sharing • Postreproductive people contribute through childcare • Adoption of nonbiological children • Hunter & Gatherer roots Look at present hunter gatherer societies E.g. !Kung San, SW Kalahari (Richard Lee & Nancy Howell) - lived in nuclear familes, recognized polygamy, didn’t practice it - Human Fertility The invention of agriculture - Increase of social stratification - Increase of polygamy - Increase in male reproductive variance - Increased male to male competition - Increased infant mortality • New material wealth • Domestication of plants & animals • Better maternal nutrition Lactation anovulation (amenorrhea) Menstrual cycle polygyny Socioeconomic status Marriage: formal alliance between the sexes Universal characteristics • Some degree of mutual obligation • Some persistence in time • Some formalized societal sanction • Sexual access (usually exclusive) • Some form of legitimization for the status of offspring Polygynous Marriage • Majority of human societies sanction polygyny • Sororal polygyny: wives are sisters • Increased with agriculture o Social stratification o Disenfranchised celibate men Polyandrous marriage Rare Found in 2 main parts of the world 1. Nigeria 2. Indian subcontinent (e.g. P
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