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Lecture 3

BIO152H5 Lecture 3: BIO152 Lecture Three Notes


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO152H5
Professor
Fiona Rawle
Lecture
3

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Lecture 3 Inside the Cell
Organelle, structure, function, endomembrane system
Osmosis low to high
Diffusion high to low
Wood frog
can block ice crystal formation
Ice triggers freezing
Tissues solidify
Vascular circulation stops
Cells are deprived of oxygen
Ice forms in extracellular spaces water inside cells is drawn externally due to osmosis
Freeze tolerance promoted by rapid synthesis of glucose from liver glycogen (enhances
survival of cells, tissues, organs)
Ice crystals can rupture cell membranes
Extreme cold is better tolerated in some animals
Some animals can block ice crystal formation in their cells
Concept 6.2: Eukaryotic Cells Have Internal Membranes that Compartmentalize Their
Functions
The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of every organism
There are two types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic
Two of the three domains of life (Bacteria and Archaea) are comprised entirely of
prokaryotic cells
Protists, fungi, animals, and plants all are eukaryotic cells
Surface Area to Volume of Cells
Surface area to volume ratio of cells is critical
Metabolic requirements set upper limits on the size of cells
As a cell increases in size, its volume grows faster than its surface area:
o surface area increases by a factor of n2, volume increases by a factor of n3
Small cells have a greater surface area relative to volume
Concept 6.4: The Endomembrane System Regulates Protein Traffic and Performs Metabolic
Functions in the Cell
Components of endomembrane system
o Nuclear envelope
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