BIO206H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Turbidity, Photodetector, Absorbance

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31 Oct 2015
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Bio206 Lecture 3
- nucleotide bases always face inwards
Backbone of DNA is consisted of:
5’C
4’C
3’ C
3’O
P
5’O
5’C
repeating
- backbone is negatively charged
B-DNA has grooves
- alternating with minor and
major grooves
- angle between carbon and base is 51.5 degrees
 therefore DNA is not symmetrical
Major Groove plays major role in gene regulation
- proteins and amino acids interact with the edges of the major grooves
- binds with net electrical charge of DNA
- DNA has histones that have a net positive charge
DNA is an INFORMATION carrying molecule
- DNA is regular and symmetrical with few chemical groups exposed for further
reactions
- Lacks OH group on 2’C of the sugar: more stable than RNA and highly resistant
to degradation
- Orderliness and stability  dependable information carrier (and no evidence of
catalytic activity)
- All C’1 are pointed towards the centre of the DNA molecule
- Base are attached to that particular sugar therefore all bases point inwards as well
RNA structure and function
- like DNA –sugar-phosphate backbone joined by phosphodiester bonds
Unlike DNA:
1. Pyrimidine URACIL instead of Thymine
2. Sugar is Ribose instead of Deoxyribose
a. Hydroxyl group (OH) on 2’ C much more reactive and RNA degrades
much more easily (less stable)
3. Exists as a single stranded molecule
4. Some RNA species have catalytic activity
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