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Lecture 2

BIO152H5 Lecture 2: BIO152 - Lecture 2 - Biology and Science Continued

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Maria Arts

BIO152 Hadia Saeed th May 11 2017 Lecture 1 Science and Biology Continued Experimentation Experiments: contrived situations Controlled Experiment: designed to compare an experimental group with a control group Control: a subject who is not exposed to the experimental treatment o Differences can be attributed to the experimental treatment Replication: repeat experiments because organisms show variation doing it once may not be accurate because of situational factors Sample size: The population being tested by the experiment o The bigger the better provides a bettermore accurate understanding of results because there are more results different people will react differently so we want to have as many results as possible to make a conclusion Inductive reasoning: derive a generalization from many specific observations (big picture) o Ex. deriving a generalization Deductive Reasoning: going from general to the more specific; takes the form of if and then logic (focuses on details) o Ex. breaking into details How Scientists think Logic of Hypothesis Tests: o A hypothesis that fails our test is rejected and considered disproven rejected o A hypothesis that passes is supported, but not proven accepted hypothesis o A null hypothesis expresses no difference No difference between Vitamin C and colds Why is a hypothesis that is supported, not proven? o Because there is a chance for more tests to be done, leave room for alternative hypothesis for new technologies to test things possibility for positive results Science and the Scientific Method 2 key factors: o Observationsideashypotheses have to be testable by experiments o The experiments must be able to be repeated by other researchers, and the measurements must be able to be verified must be able to be double checked or repeated by others how we go from hypothesis to theories Can science answer all questions? o No science can answer questions only based on natural phenomenon can be measured and observed o Supernatural and religious things cannot be answered by science Food Competition hypothesis o Simmons and Scheepers tested the typical feeding posture in giraffes
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