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Lecture 10

FAH205H5 Lecture 10: Art of the Etruscans and Republican Rome

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Fine Art History (FAH)

Week 10 Lecture Art of the Etruscan and Republican Roman Periods - Il Capo • Il Capo means the chief • extractions of the marble • marble temples and status begin Roman art refers not only to art from the city of Rome, but also to art from the various provinces of the Roman empire. Roman “provincial art” often kept its distinct character. The map shows the Roman empire at its greatest expansion • map of roman empire • Italy highlighted and blown up on the right side • Roman empire spread through Europe • we will be talking about art from various provinces from roman empire Etruscan Map •purples section is where the Etruscans are from Timeline • for the Etruscan, we are starting around the 10th century BCE and going down to 100 BCE • Etruscan period is divided into different phases • 1st phrase is called Villanovan - name after a site where many remains were found in the cementery • the 3 remaining period are on par with periods of greek periods because there are a lot of influences - there are a lot of similarities • the final phase is called Roman-Etruscan Period - there is back and forth • they both influenced each other Roman Republic Period • - explosion of the kings and formation of the Republic - Early Republic: conquest of central Italy - Middle Republic: 3 Punic Wars - 3 Macedonias Wars • Roman fought greek kingdoms - quest of Pergamon • important - 44 BCE: Julius Caesar assassinated - 31 BCE: Battle of Actium Reconstruction and plan of Early Iron Age hut, from foundations found on palatine Hill, Rome • simple building and plan • simple oval shape with 4 posts on the interior its a wattle and daub • • dap is the plaster or filling in the clay that holds in the mud Villanovan cremation urn, terracotta, in the shape of a wattle and daub hut •pattern on the roof mimics the roofing the huts would have had Rome, Capitoline Hill: Archaic Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus (Jupiter Capitolinus, c.500 BCE • Jupiter is same as Greek god Zeus • Optimus means biggest • maximus is the best Rome, Capitoline Hill: Archaic Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus (Jupiter Capitolinus, c.500 BCE • plan • has a staircase • deep porch in the front • 3 cella rooms • larger temples were divided into 3 cella’s where smaller ones had 1 • columns on the side end on the back wall • spaces between the exterior and cella walls are called Alla • Alla means wings • there are 2 wings on each side of the cella walls Similarities • both are big temples • Rome • one access • Parthenon - enter from any side up the stairs Mode of an Etruscan Temple (Temple at Veii) Based on description by Vitruvius 4.7. • building in a wood or terrocota or local stone called tufa that is very soft • temples do not survive in the way stone temples do • based on a roman writer - wrote in 1st century - 10 books of architecture - talks about these temples in one of the temple • stone base survives Plan of an Etruscan Temple. Based on description by Vitruvius 4.7. • built on a podium • there is a monumental staircase in the front • deep porch • porch is half the size of the temple • half is the temple and half the cella • 3 cella rooms • there are no surrounding colonnade ends with cella walls • • features of the Etruscan temples are later borrowed in roman architecture Portonaccio Temple at Veii, ridgepole sculpture reconstruction • there were sculptures at the top of the temple • various Gods at the roof • almost life size Master Sculpture Vulca (?) Apollo. From the temple of Minerva, Portonaccio, Veii. c.510-550 BCE. • wears a toga • in a stridding position there is movement going • on • he would have held something in his arms • scene on the roof was a contest happening • there is a liveness has the archaic smile that we are use to from archaic greece • similarities • both have similarities and differences between style • both in sharp drapery folds • supporting elements has patterns of scroll works • Apollo - actual movement • Kroisos - stiff - one foot front of the other - implied movement Master Sculpture Vulca (?) Apollo. From the temple of Minerva, Portonaccio, Veii. c.510-550 BCE. Painted terrracotta. - Apollo from different views Exterior View of a Temple, perhaps dedicated to portunis. Forum Boarium (Cattle Market), Rome. Late 2nd century BCE. • god of keys and doorways • filled with anxiety • god to protect • temple buit on a podium • high podium- • deep porch in front of the stella • iconic columns • there are engaged columns from the stella wall • they have no structural function but they are their for decorative purposes right by the river • - Plan Plan of a Temple, perhaps perhaps dedicated to Portunis. Forum Boarium (Cattle Market), Rome. Late 2nd century BCE. •one cella room •engaged columns go around around the room •temples were built in a urban •built in the city not in separate sanctuary like in the greek world Roman Architectural Orders • similar to the Greeks given different names with slight changed • • Tuscan order - similar to doric order in the greek - plan capital - column sits on a base where the doric column does nit - under the base there is a pedestal with plint, dado and cornice Composite order • - mixture of iconic and - sits on a pedestal Facade of Library of Celsus, Ephesis, Modern Turkey. Detail showing capital, architrave, frieze, and cornice, conforming to the Composite order. 135 CE. Marble. Porta Augusta. Periguia, Italy. 3rd-2nd century BCE. • big feature of the roman was the arch • invented in the East Romans went arch crazy • • they perfected they way to built and use it • early example of an arch at a gateway to a city • fortification walls and a arch way at the entrance The Roman Arch • built on supporting elements • jambs on the side • if it is part of the series, the middle arches are supported on piers • arch is made of of these wedge shape blocked called voussoirs held in between with keystone • they used wooden centerings until it was secure • spandrel space with decorated with sculpture Pont Du Gard. Nimes, France. Late 1st century BCE. • example of roman arch • built to bring water fro mthe near by springs to the near by towns • they needed to across the river • there are 3 levels of arches • the two lower levels with larger arches are built one on top of each other • the top level has smaller levels of arches • the stones are sticking out to allow repair • was example of the rthymns the feature creates • practical building technique • asthically pleasing • melds into the landscape setting Roman concrete, also called opus caementicium, was used in construction during the late Republic. there are different facing styles • invented how to make the concrete • walls were built from concrete and faced with stones • there are 2 types of stone facing • blocked stuck into the wet concrete • on the left we have the opus incertum • on the right we have - regular shape - diamond shape facings creating a net like pattern Sanctuary of Jupiter Anxur, Terracina, c.150 BCE. Example of the use of opus incertum. regular pattern of stones inserted into the concrete • • series of arches it goes through Pompeii, possibly the forum, opus reticulate detail. •net like pattern on the wall Caere (Cerveteri) Banditaccio Necropolis • burial site • built tombs and mounted them over the tomb • the aerial image shows the various tomb mount on the landscape Tomb of the Shields and the Chairs, Cerveteri, ca. 600 BCE. Tufa • long passage way • various rooms of the passage way • built tombs so the decreased could be comfortable in the after like • similar to Egyptians belief • we have a idea of what their homes would have been like from the tomb • had shields on the walls and chairs to sit on Burial Chamber, Tomb of the relief. Cerveteri, Italy. 3rd century BCE. •pillows made from stone for the deceased •relief sculptures on the piers and elements above •kitchen tools, pots, knifes, jugs, weapons, animals (suggest family pet) Tomb of the Bulls, Tarquinia, with Ambush of Troilos, c.540 BCE. • divisions on the walls • space at the top filled with features • frieze elements where there are bulls painted (this is where we get the name) • horizontal wall divided into two panels • feature gets borrowed in the Roman wall painting Tomb of the Bulls, Tarquinia, with Ambush of Troilos, detail c.540 BCE. • upper section is the scene of the Trojan war • foundation has sculpted animals stream of water from the lion • mouth into a face • two figures are done is silhouette • lion sculptures and fountain done in outline • interest in landscape and natural world • lower panel of trees and natural elements in the narrative scenes consist of scrubs, tress, plants • panel below is series of conventional trees • decorated with ribbons • features continues into the Roman period • decorative use of ribbons, gardens continues Tomb of Hunting and Fishing, Tarquinia. Detail: boya hunting birds and fishing. Late 6th century BCE. • number of boys • one boy on the land hunting birds • the other boys are in a boat fishing • lively scene • colours are bright and cheerful • there is interest in the natural world Boys climbing rocking and diving, Tomb of hunting and fishing. Tarquinia, Italy. Late 6th century BCE. • reminds of the greek example of the diver • this example was found in Italy • there is interconnection of metal influences from the greek Dancer and diners, Tomb of the Triclinium. Tarquinia, Italy. c.480-470 BCE. • Triclinium is a dinning room • there are woman part taking in the testing • serval dining couches • man reclining and woman in front of him • female figures in white • men in red flesh • there is enjoyment in the dining scne • we have animals (cat looking for scraps) and musicals • we have figures dancing to the music • there is pedimental space painted with squares like roof tiles Heal of Velia,
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