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Canada (492,664)
Geography (610)
GGR208H5 (39)

Lecture- March 8.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Jennifer Dean

Migration Trends and Issues March 8 2012 History of Migration in CanadaAboriginal referred to Canada as Kanatafirst inhabited by Aboriginal peopleA Nation of Immigrants majority of Canadian population caused by fluctuations in immigrationtho First settled by British and French in 16 C o Seven Years War 18thC British ruleFrench allowed to keep Quebec and Acadia o Allowance of distinct culture despite the fact that they lost the war against the British o Example of distinct communities within Canadath US migration during 18C war of independence in United States 1800s British and Irish famine settlement1869 First Immigration Act o Open door policy excluding ill poor criminalsDominion Act 1872 160 acres of land FREE to those who would settle and improve it o Preference to Caucasian Europeans western Europeans and Americans1885 Chinese Head Tax o Prevent settlement of Chinese workers and families working on CNR Canadian National Railway o Brought workers from China to build the CNR Once CNR was built Canada had a large Chinese population but wanted to keep a white nationIntroduced Chinese Head Tax to prevent the Chinese from settling in Canada 1914 War Measures Act o Citizens born in Canada migrants with citizenship status from enemy countries Germany Austria Hungary had to register carry id card and not allowed to vote o enemy aliens placed in internment camps Japanese1919 Immigration Act Take 2 o Government given powers to exclude undesirable nationalities o Broaden diversity Ukrainians Polish Italians o Chinese Immigration Act 19231947 no immigration from China in these years Post WWII Acknowledged the economic power of migration o Canada began to see immigration as an economic means to develop the countryrd 1952 3 Immigration Act o Preference still to British Americans Europeans and Asians with family in Canada o Excluded gay people mentally disabled Asians without familyA new Day History of Migration1962 Modifications to Immigration Act o Eliminate focus on racial national ethnic cultural background individuals no longer selected based on their racenationality o Preference to those with skills of benefit to CanadaCriticism asked for fluency in English and French these skill sets developed to favour certain people but it was not as explicit 1967 Points system introduced o Quotarestrictions eliminated o Based on skills adaptability o Seen as a way to be less discriminatory 1969 UN Convention for Refugees Signed became a major host country for refugees1976 Reforms to Immigration Acto Quotas set on number of immigrants per year but not on where they came fromo Categories created2002 Immigration and Refugee Protection ActTrends in Immigration in Canada 18512001 3000 2500 2000 Populationin thousands 1500 Total population growth1 Immigration 1000 500 0 111111111261636161616789012341566178899088889999959997999990111111111911191111121111111111116116161656789012315566778899888889999499969999991111111119111911111111Year Major population growth accompanied by growth in immigrationDemonstrates power of immigration in population growth Increase in populationdecrease in immigration baby boom Canadas immigration and Refugee systemCitizenship and Immigration Canada CIC o Selection process design programs selecting those who apply under those programs o Issues visas and permits issue travel documents passports o Grants citizenship for PRCanada Border Services Agency CBSA o Admits people into Canada customs officers border patrollingo Detains people who are a risk for Canadian society ie wanted criminals o Removes those who are inadmissibleImmigration and Refugee Board of Canada IRB o Decides who needs refugee protection o Hears appeals to immigration matters ie deportation caseso Conducts admissibility hearings and detention reviews for those who are detained at the borderCurrent Migration TrendsCanada as multiculturalmosaic allow individuals to keep their cultural heritage and cultural practices vsUnited States and Australias melting pot assimilation o 200000 immigrantsyear in Canadaimmigrants people coming into the countries voluntary and refugees o 20 of Canadas total population o Australia 22 o Immigration accounts for 60 population growth 100 by 2030 o Increasingly ethnically diverse over time Due to number of people interested in coming to CanadaElimination of policies ie Chinese head tax
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