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Lecture 3

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Mark Reczkiewicz

GGR 378 Lecture 2 What kind of people live in India? Foragers and hunters; collect things for a living This lifestyle has disappeared completely Nomadic; 30-40ppl maximum Common ancestors of all of us Why is this way of living vanishing? Why a creation of a world radically divided into rich and poor? How happy are we that there are wealthy and poor nations? What is progress? What does this mean to you Technology What are the kinds of societies/ categories that she mentions? Adivasi: people who were originally there Townspeople, pastorals, peasants She tries to give a picture of culture change; the ways people try and make a living Categories of society Population subsistence Work,labor Political org Social org Hunter gatherers Not a large population; since their method of food gathering called for it they would move around a lot 1/sq mil Simple economic and political arrangements, they did not need formal leaders, no occupational specialization, if they did, they had a spiritual power Kinship of families were what divided Hierarchy (if there was) were based on age or gender (men were different from female) Work labor (very high yield relative to labor) Since there was little difference in individual wealth, shared wealth, egalitarian (she suggests that they get a high yield of food for not doing that much work) Subsistence (hunting gathering fishing) Political organization (informal, few if any formal leaders) (resolve conflict through mobility; move away from, group size, membership; who you let in oor not) Social organization (small family groups) (few states distinctions; sex, age) (marriage is an alliance between groups; why? Matching where the individual is not important, it is the marriage of two large families; importance of group not individual) Pastoralists/ peasants/ agriculturists Foragers began to plant crops, herd domestic animals Peasants are those who cultivated lands Did not have to move around, lived in semi permentant settlements 200- 2000 people Slash and burn agriculture, plant grass among The sedentary groups demanded leadersip; important person or family arose … elder or lineage… Beginning of a hierarchy 10-15 sqmile Subsistence; slash and burn, herding, high yield, high labour, Politicl organization; more formalized, political roles, leaders, chiefs Values such as ; wealth, prestige and women, (conflicts) Social organization: Rise of extended family groups, whole networks of people that are related to you When you have largewealth, make sure that your extended family receives it… descent becomes a great deal Increase in status distictions, suddenly there is a surplus. Those who have money have status and crop to stand it up Family becomes more important than others Townspeople/ Those who start to move into urban areas To fend off property from other groups? Development of agriculture ;better tools, irrigation canals Leaders organize work; defensive s
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