How has the subcontinent been divided geographically? Characterize the regions.
-The continent is divided into 3 major regions: the Northern Mountains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain,
and the Peninsula. Each area has its own key geographical features.
-The Northern Mountains: the northern plains is bounded by the Hindu Kush and the Sulaiman
and Kirthar Mountains to the north west, and by the Himalaya to the north. The mountains work as a
geographical barrier. They do a good job of separating groups and preventing conflict. But there is also
the Khyber Pass which is historically important in allowing diffusion of people, ideas, and language
(resulting in the spread of the Indo-European language). Other mountain ranges in the area are the:
Kirthar and Sulaiman ranges.
-The Indo-Gangetic Plain: It is the area below the Himalayan central areas. Filled with important
rivers like the Ganges and the Indus. These rivers run to create incredible fertile agricultural areas called
the Doab. The land there is extremely fertile. The Brahmputra region in the Indo-Gangetic plain has its
own fertilization advantages but it is supplied by a slower moving river. Just as there are fertile regions
there are also dry areas as well. Those dry regions serve as very good areas for transportation and trade
to occur over. Also the Indo-Gangetic watershed acts as a frontier to the Ganges Plain, which provided a
-The Peninsula: The southern area isolated by the Deccan Plateau (another geographical
barrier). Has coastal ranges known as the “ghats”. And it separates the Arabian sea and the Bay of
Why are river valleys optimal areas for the rise of urban centres?
-Good modes of transport – bulk items, people, etc.
-Most rivers were navigable, so river ports were Important as nodal points
-Good place to trade
What makes mountain passes, frontier zones, and coastal areas such interesting places?
- Frontiers are boundaries between states, coastal areas have ports that have ships arriving from