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GGR287H5 (33)
Lecture 3

Lecture 3 Notes.docx

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Pierre Desrochers

Lecture #3 - September 23rd From Foraging toAgriculture • Much debate, but (generally) agreed upon basic sequence o Hunting large/slow animals + some gathering o Hunting smaller animals _ more diverse gathering o Sendentism """" they didn't move anymore, no longer nomads (opposite of nominism) o Slow birth of agriculture Agronomy VS Horticulture VS Livestock Agronomy: Science of field-crop production and soil management Horticulture: cultivation of crops (simple hand tools or modern technologies) WhyAgriculture? • Plants o Food o Fiber (cotton, linen) o Medicine o Narcotics o Containers o Musical instruments • Livestock o Meat o Milk o Manure o Plough animals o Clothing o Other materials o Transportation o Turning organic waste to good use SubsistenceAgriculture • 1) RST (Basic characteristics) o Small-scale production o Several different kinds of crops + animals o Primarily for family consumption rather than sale o Crops  Mostly cereals and tubers, but always some diversity  Grow as much food as possible (costs no consideration)  Stored and preserved until next harvest  Farm animal o FarmAnimal  Fed inedible organic waste, low-grade forage, left to scrounge for themselves • 2) ShiftingAgriculture o Brazil o Indonesia • 3) Pastoral Nomadism "Food Security" in SA(mostly RST) • 1) Diversity in crop productions and landscape elements (slopes, valleys, etc.) o (good against specific disease and localized weather events, not so much against droughts, locusts, etc.) • 2) Catch-up crops o (can be grown quickly after early and obvious failure of a more desirable one) "Local" urban food production • For most of history, urban perishable food supply <50 km • Human, dog, cat, and poultry food in Victorian cities... Center City - a flat plain, people tend to gather in the middle (Landscape with Rainbow, Henley- on-Thames, Jan Siberechts, c.1690) Ring 1:Animals and Products • 1) Don't travel well or o Milk and some dairy o Eggs • 2) Feed/require organic waste o Chickens, rabbits, pig
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