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ggr329 Lec 10.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Pierre Desrochers

Lecture 10 GGR329 From Egalitarianism to Kleptocracy Over past 13000 years, - Replacement of smaller, less complex units - By larger, more complex ones Societies first achieved - Centralized governments - Organized religions Ended up dominating modern world. Cultural anthropologists - Describe diversity of human societies into as many as half a dozen category Diamond disagrees: - Lines of demarcation are inevitably arbitrary Diamonds classification: - Band (most human history) - Tribe around 13,000 YA Fertile Crescent (required increased food production) - Chiefdom o 5500 BC Fertile Crescent o 1000 BC in Americas - State o 3700 BC Fertile crescent o 2000 BC Andes, China, southeast Asia o 200 BC Mesoamerica o 1000 AD West Africa Lecture 10 GGR329 LOOK THRU TABLE 14.1 To answer the question completely! How does elite gain popular support while >> lifestyle than commoners 1. Disarm populace and arm elite 2. Redistribute tribute in popular ways 3. Use monopoly of force to promote happiness a. Maintaining public order b. Curbing violence 4. Construct ideology/religion justifying kleptocracy Religion: Supernatural beliefs used to - Justify central authority - Transfer of wealth - Maintain peace between unrelated individuals - Gives people motive for sacrificing their lives on behalf of others - Leaders: special connection with gods - Priest are like Kleptocrats providing ideological justification for chiefs States VS Smaller Entities - More troops and resources - Concentrated leadership - Religion/Patriotism make o Troops willing o To fight suicidally Lecture 10 GGR329 Processes from band to states? 1. States are natural state of affairs (Aristotle – Plain Wrong) 2. Social contract: (Rousseau – no basis in facts, rather conquests/external duress) 3. Hydraulic Theory: (public works – but large-scale hydraulic projects usually came long after state emergence) 4. Size of regional population: More numerous population and more complex political system (Diamond’s favorite but how?) From band to states? What about the processes? - Large populations need food production o But chicken or egg? - Diamond’s take o Intensified food production o Societal complexity o Stimulate each other (autocatalysis) Food Production for Social Complexity - Requires seasonal labor o After harvest, labor used for  Public works  Wars of conquest - Stored surpluses (economic specialization and social stratification): o Feed chiefs, elite, scribes, craftspeople, specialists, o Feed farmers while they are working on public works - Requires sedentary living, important for possessions, technology, crafts, public works, control of people Lecture 10 GGR329 Large populations  complex social system - Conflict resolution b/w unrelated people o Need laws and authority - Communal decisions impossible o Need political structure - Reciprocal economy impossible o Need redistributive economy - Dense population must be organized What drives amalgamation of smaller
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