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Lecture 7

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR353H5
Professor
Grace Barakat
Semester
Winter

Description
Week 10 Search for Mechanisms • Social determinants and health: two areas of thought ◦ Income inequalities negatively associated with health statue through the reduction of social capital leading to less cohesive societies. ◦ Social capital: relative deprivation and perceptions of income equality. Well we do have social capital, but if it is low it may lead to those different perceptions of income inequalities which leads to bad health • Mechanisms: ◦ Cattell (2001) ‣ How social capital works at the micro level ‣ How is it created? ‣ What are the different form social capital takes in communities? ‣ How Social structure, and networking effect social capital • Survey interviews: two case study areas, London England • Exhibit similar deprivation but had different features in terms of opportunities for participation. (Had similar income levels and opportunities for development and such) • Keir Hardy: relative isolated area • Cathall: sustained community development work and voluntary sector activity • The interviews were aimed to get that relationship between social capital and health • Self rated health measures: "quality of life" and "well being" • Social capital: a resource produced when people cooperate for mutual benefit; informal and formal social networks are essential components of social capital. Like providing social support, perceptions of control and be,ongoing in a community and such. Active connections between people. Cooperation in a community that work towards a same mutual goal. Expanding these connections to build mutual understanding and trust with shared values and behaviours. • Neighbourhood characteristics and social networks, social support: ◦ Neighbourhood context ◦ Social employment history ◦ Services and facilities ◦ Housing characteristics ◦ Opportunities for casual meeting ◦ Participation in associations ◦ Area reputation ◦ Social clubs ◦ Housing design • Social networking in Keir Hardy ◦ Neighbourhood built on pride from this their history ◦ Sense of belonging ◦ Feelings of satisfaction ◦ Strong neighbourly support and inter generational continuity ◦ Traditional norms of reciprocity still existed and these mutual obligations still existed even with the economic change ◦ Evidence if social capital and trust • Social network in Cathall ◦ Little sense of his other and belonging to the area, not much pride and high population turn over ◦ Anti social behaviour ◦ Distrust between residents, family dispersal and strain ◦ Alienation from the community ◦ Little exchange of information ◦ Little benefit seen in relation to community involvement. There were organizations for participations but they tended to be restricted to self interested groups so residents didn't see the benefits of community involvement • Network typologies: ◦ Individuals accounts of their life experiences ◦ Social contacts ◦ Involvement in community life ‣ 5 models • Socially excluded • Homogenous (common values and interests and similarities) • Traditional (traditional working class community and culture) • Heterogenous (different but connected through some organization or group) • Networked of solidarity (individuals that share strong characteristics that ties them together, like a shared belief) • Benefits of developing network typologies: ◦ Assist in the identification of certain
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