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GGR378H5 (17)
Lecture 10

Lecture 10.docx

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Barbara Murck

Lecture 10 Continuing from last class -hint for the test STUDY THE INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSES Human Intervention • Channelization – Dams – Levees – Flood retention ponds – Diversion channels – Channel modifications • Deepening, straightening, widening, etc. – Channel “training” structures • Rip-rap, gabions, jetties, etc. • Human interventions: modifying surfaces (affects whether or not water can reach the channel and how fast. Example building parking even, bulding buildings) (next slides) • Channelization (changing the channel. Affects the formula we saw earlier) Human Intervention • Urbanization – Increase in impermeable surfaces – Storm drainage – Development on floodplains – Withdrawal of groundwater & other fluids – subsidence • Channel modification is undertaken for: – Flood control, drainage, floodplain development – Water use (irrigation, power generation, etc.) – Navigation & access • Impacts of human intervention: – Increases frequency and magnitude of floods – Decreases lag times for “flash” floods – Changes area of inundation during floods – Affects temp, turbidity, velocity, depth of water – Changes the Q = V x CSA relationship; invalidates historical records & statistical analysis of floods – Degrades riparian and aquatic ecosystem health Institutional Response: U.S. • FEMA – U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (1979) • Part of Office of Homeland Security (2003) – “…respond to, plan for, recover from, and mitigate against disasters.” • Dam safety, earthquakes, extreme heat, fires, floods, hazardous materials, hurricanes, landslides, nuclear, terrorism, thunderstorms, tornadoes, tsunamis, volcanoes, wildfires, winter storms • President’s Disaster Relief Fund • National Flood Insurance Program • -Canadian system works better • -established in 1979 • -bascially FEMA runs the show and all the federal funding runs through FEMA Institutional Response: Canada • All levels of government, coordinated by… • Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada (2003)
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