HIS306H5 Lecture Notes - Germanic Peoples, Enki, Marshall Plan
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In Competition for Europe: Drawing Cold War Lines
Last class; based on common enemy, distrust amongst the allies, SU left out of atomic bomb & SU spying
on them. Even problems & different vision some sense of both sides even after change of leadership there
may be some hope for cooperation, end of 1945 clear global war in place. How did the cold war happen?
Have to look at the nature of the world
1. The World in 1945
First time Truman & Stalin will meet, Churchill some part and his party was not elected again. Prior to
start Truman & Churchill would tour the Berlin to see the ruins. The world in 1945,
- much of Europe was devastation & destruction: a lot of rebuilding necessary & how will it take effect?
75% of the city of Berlin in ruin, transportation system had been destroyed; industrial plants were
incapable of functioning. Untreated sewage was in the water ways. A lot of the people were hungry lack
of food. Britain: London severely damaged, 20% of France infrastructure was destroyed. Italy major
cities, electrical, gas, water system was in ruin. Agricultural production in Italy was down 50%. In
Poland, Greece 80% of the railways were incapable of operation, 1 million homeless. SU experienced
damage 40,000 miles of railroad not functioning, almost all industrial plants had been destroyed.
Agricultural production was down half. Low end 55 million died, high end 70 million. SU 21 million
died. Poland, Germany, Austria 6 million, China 10 million, Japan 2.5 million, 200,000 due from atomic
bombs. USA: 420,000 lost.
-Legacies Bequeathed by ww2 to the international system: the impact it would have to come, is the
1. redistribution of power: defeat of Germany leaves it up for Europe, and defeat of Japan leaves
it up in Asia. SU & USA only countries able to control for the power. The two poles not equal,
asymmetry of power, SU needs to rebuild, SU larger army, USA atomic bomb at this time only
one, both capable but can’t do it right now.
2. Destruction of the economy: necessary rebuilding of the economies, not just individual of
Germany, Britain, they need to be rebuilt but also the flow of international commerce & trade, all
of it stopped during 1930s, due to great depression, made countries turn inwards, started to shut
down international trade & commerce. Larger economy to rebuild.
3. Domestic, political turmoil due to the war, government of the countries that had been in power
were questioned due to the world, discredited and distrusted, socialist communist and leftist
movements are on the rise, many of the people who were part of the socialistic parties had fought
in resistant movements, some argued that capitalist powers were the reason for the war & respect
to GP the first country to pull out of depression was the SU, which Stalin said cause he said it was
socialist economy, strength of leftist countries was growing all across Europe, from Stalin woo,
from USA bad, troubled by how supportive socialism is
4. disintegration of empires most of these countries wanted to maintain their empire, but were
hard to do, people in these empires of Southeast Asia, Africa are trying to get independence
because USA through war FDR four freedoms, self-determination, anti-colonial movement.
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5. Shrinkage of the globe: perception of the globe changed, ways of moving across the globe
changed, in 1930s, when Germany was rearming etc, a lot of Americans said what does it matter
it doesn’t affect us, concept is disappearing, that an event somewhere else doesn’t effect you,
technology and naval fleets etc, these things lead to a threat in western Europe is threat here.
Concept of geographic isolation.
6. question of atomic energy: comes out of world war two, atomic energy was possible german
scientist thought this before war, proved correct, atomic energy exists by the end of the war, only
country that has it is USA. somewhat troubling if you’re the other countries. How to redistribute
power etc, political future look who’s going to take care of empires when they occur.
Some form of relationship to work, ultimately this proves impossible due to these things, but to sum it
up , the open up of international systems opened up risks of political turnnmoil and at the same time
opportunitiy rebuild things in a way of your philosophy, risks & perceptions of the international system
(whats a risk, whats a opportunity) that the two poles view the world
2. Drawing of Ideological Lines
How they interpreted of each other, not necessarily meant, they are seen that way. American policy
makers are worried about the rising opportunity of the left the need for reconstruction, problem for USA
is the socialist parties are on the rise. Greece communist power grew from 17,000 members start of war to
70,000 members @ end. Italy: communist party before tiny, end, 1.7 million Italians call themselves
communist or sympathic, France, Italy, communist were 20% of the support. Eastern Europe 40-50%.
Stalin perspective sees this as an opportunity & enhance the red army occupies much of Eastern Europe.
The positioning of his armies and growing support within Europe for socialist agenda, Stalin to be able to
secure the borders, thinks the International landscape is permissive, only power to stop him is USA,
hopeful that a relationship would be able to be maintained, stay good side, less concern of SU to rule
Europe. Made a point to intitally in closing years of war to implement a national front strategy, coalition
governments of communists are large part but not the sole voice, appeal to the USA. fine with coalition
governments, Greece, France, Italy Stalin ordered the communist to desist from trying to seize power,
don’t want to rock the boat. Initial attempt to get along to benefit Stalin. End of 1945 structure of
international system; thinks free elections in E.E not make communist in control, may be coalition but not
in power. If you have them why not rig them. Delaying of holding elections is interpreted by the SU.
Soviet betrayal. USA sees this bertraying war time agreeements, Stalin makes statements that they view
1. Stalin’s February 1946 Speech: other members of communist government, revives ideological
language that he had been careful during the war to not use. Said envitable result of capitalism
caused the war, still arguing the war proved superior of socialism; SU is still standing were
superior, increasing popularity of socialist communist movements. Upside is the war proved the
superiority of capitalism. Inevitable conflict to come, some problems. SU needs to start
promoting science to surpass achievements of other countries the only way they will be ensured is
if they can pass the scientific achievement of others, domestically an arms race. Intended for
domestic audience, gets picked up in press. On top of that, they had not been joined to the world
bank. Set themselves aside by not joining, capitalist institution SU makes sense, USA puzzled,
large sums of money need to rebuild SU, comes from World Bank why not participate? US
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