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MGT426H5 Lecture Notes - Balance Sheet, Retained Earnings, Current Liability

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Need for financial statements; creditors, customers, investors, suppliers, managers.
Accounting used to keep track of daily business activities that affect the business internally
and externally. Internally would be any activities that impact the business that does not
involve other parties such as accruing expenses, depreciation and such.
Monetary unit – only things that can be measured in money should be used in accounting
Economic entity – states that the business be treated as a separate entity from the owner.
Meaning only things that impact the business should be recorded. Anything used for
personal reasons should not interfere with daily business activities.
Time period – states that transactions should be recorded at the time that it occurred
Going on concern – assumes that the business will continue operating unless otherwise
Cost – states that all entries are recorded at cost meaning inflation and deflation should not
change the price. Also cannot record at a price that is an estimate of future value with the
impact of the market.
Full disclosure – only things that can be proven with objective evidence can be recorded in
the accounts. Such things like receipts, notes, contracts, and bills.
Revenue recognition – revenue should be recognized when earned not necessarily when
the money is receieved
Matching principle – states that revenues be matched with expenses.
Materialitystates that all items in the accountant’s book should have a significant
influence in the operations of the business. An item is considered immaterial if, without it,
there is no impact on the business. This is so that the financial statements are not cluttered
with useless information.
Cost-benfit – states that the benefits of providing the financial information be greater than
the cost of providing it.
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