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LIN100 Phonetics I Notes - Troberg

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Michelle Troberg

LIN100 Jan. 8, 14 Troberg Phonetics I Q: Is there is a one-to-one correspondence between sounds and spelling in English? No. Sounds and spellings are not always related.An example would be the word “knight”. It is spelled with a k, but the k sound is not pronounced. This is proof that there is not a one to one correspondence between sounds and spelling in English. Spelling does not equal sound. Spelling doesn’t equal sound in 4 ways: 1) Same spelling, different pronunciations 2) Same pronunciation, different spelling 3) Silent letters 4) Missing letters  The phonetic alphabet provides a one-to-one correspondence between sounds and spelling, and solves the above problems.  The phonetic alphabet we use is IPA(International PhoneticAlphabet)  See page 39-40  Review broad vs. narrow phonetic transcription Why does English have so many “weird” spellings and sounds? English is a language that is made up of borrowings from other languages like French and German. Those languages have different phonetic systems that English doesn’t have. However, some words have English origin.An example is “knight”. This word comes from English but it is pronounced differently. This is because over time the pronunciation has evolved. It used to be pronounced with a k sound, but it has changed. Example of IPA < ough> < cough>: [kɑf] < tough>: [tʌf] < bough>: [baw] : [θruw] < though>: [ðow] Branches of Phonetics: 1. Articulatory Phonetics: studies the production of sounds in the vocal tract 2. Acoustic Phonetics: studies the physical properties of linguistic sounds 3. Auditory Phonetics: studies the perception of sounds by the brain through the human ear *Our focus in this course is 1 Transcription – writing with the phonetic alphabet Speech sound – sound used to build morpheme CONSONANTS Consonant -Aspeech sound produced with some constriction of the airstream; one of the two major classes of speech sounds along with vowels Consonants can be described in terms of three properties: 1.  Place of articulation: where the airstream is most obstructed 2.  Manner of articulation: the particular way the airstream is obstructed 3.  Voicing: whether the vocal cords are together and vibrating or open and not vibrating Place of Articulation There are 7 places where we stop air (all in oral cavity) 1. Bilabils (LIPS) – p (puh), b (buh) and m (mm) 2. Labiodentals (LIPS & TEETH) – f and v 3. Interdentals (TEETH) – this is when we stick tongue in between teeth to pronounce th (θ) and th (ð)
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