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Political Science

March 11, 2013 China: Last class talked about historical legacy that continues to have some influence on Chinese foreign policy in terms of their long culture as a Dominant state in East Asia which tended to see elites within china, those elites to see the international order in different way than that the dominates the IR system today, Continue to have significant influence on china leadership today interacts with foreign countries, the main component is that the bedrock of international order, referred to the Westphalia system, posits is the equality of states, regardless of their equality to eachother. partially imbedded in the UN system, in the general assembly, where all states regardless of size/power are represented equally, and is also the corner storm of diplomacy in IR system, in which diplomats enjoy immunity, and states enjoy sovereignty (freedom from interference in internal affairs, at least in legal terms) regardless of their size & power. China historically, 3000 yrs has never viewed it this way. One reason is that throughout the history its never confronted its equal in terms of power has been at the center of the universe in east Asia and has acted as such, meaning tended to exercise power over other regions beyond its direct control through system of tribute that these lesser powers required to pay to the Chinese empire. Viewed itself in ways that may seem as analogous to the Europeans view of themselves as civilizers of the barbarians and the rest of the world - British of white mens burden, civilize the barbarians of other countries, or for that matter equivalent to the perceptions of USA itself : city on the hill, where its mission is to bring democracy liberty to other parts of the world, however GB and to a lesser extent USA, have long had to acknowledge the formally equality of states and practice diplomacy to avoid endless military conflict with neighbors. in consequencenly developed the means to do so. Meaning a diplomatic core, foreign ministeries with permanent staff of experts on various regions on the world with relevant language skills & connections to those regions to project power within those parts of the world very much under developed in context of the USA. US not having to confront powerful neighbours on regular basis acted acted unilaterally consequently had under developed state department, under developed, institution remains today under developed for many reasons: one including state department never trusted by political leadership in USA, in turn resulted in practices like shifting diplomats from one region to another, every couple years never developed in expertise in those regions, or language skills = deliberate policy of the US government because they feel diplomat too much time in foreign region likely to develop sympathy, less reliable and loyal to the USA. China had similar problem, continues to some extent suffer from this problem, meaning that well into the 19 century, plenty of representatives of foreign countries in china, but china had no representation in foreign countries, because of tribute system. That began to change but slowly & chaotically, as the decline of the Qing Dynasty, the main period of economic expansion and political & cultural expansion used in terms of Dynasty, most important dynasties are Song Dynasty, Ming Dynasty(end of which great wall constructed to proctect china from Mongolense ito procect from foreign invaders) now Qing Dynasty which ruled 1650 – beginnings of 20 th th Qing dynasty reached its peak of power in 18 century,after which started to decline in part for domestic reasons, the passing of the political control from one emperor to the next, resulted in th beginning of 19 century with young emperiors being appointed that were less experienced and less good @ leadership than predecessors were & that tended to weaken china from the inside, but they were increasingly facing challenge outside that they didn’t previously encounter, meaning mostly from west. th th Challenges from Inside + outside some extent overlapped, china 19 /20 century two centuries of humiliation, force humiliated them over two centuries, china was never directly colonized, never colonized like India, instead western powers expanded trade networks into East Asia, began to force declining Qing Dynasty to surrender control over certain port cities, which allowed colonial powers Britain and France, playing dominate role in this, Great Britain lead role, got most important port cities Hong Kong and Shanghai, Portugal controlled Macao and there were other cities controlled by Frence and later German & Russians (particularly in the northern part) which increasingly allowed them to control trade and international trade between China and the outside world, its also through this spreading of ports cities that Europeans made significant importance on Christain missionaries one of first cultural contacts between China & European world, Missionaries played important role in China understanding and viewing the outside world, especially western Europe but lesser role in converting those to the Christian religion, one exception: the Ti-Ping rebellion Resulted from a person who was taught by catholic missionaries, and who came to the conclusion that he was the brother of Christ, & sought to project himself on the throne on that basis, reached a and started a regional rebellion in southern part of China, gathered large number of supporters that attacked Chinese instillations in the southern part of china & in putting down the rebellion, 2 million died..1840s coincided roughly with another crucial step in humiliation of China, where England played a dominate role – Opium wars, despite controlling much of the trade of China & outside world, British were th developing in early part of the 19 century significant trade deficit with China, exporting a great deal but didn’t have goods to import into China, with one exception .. opium main production region at the time were India and Berma, both controlled by England .. opium was one of means the British could equalize trade with China, and East India company which was the main agent of that change largely fought the Opium wars for right to access Chinese markets for Opium, in other words, role in china the British were drug dealers as competition over colonial possession th increased throughout the 19 century leading to scramble for Africa, similar scramble competition occurred over access to China, which led to the entrance of Russia, which expanded its territory at the expense of china in the northern region, Ventura but also growing involvement in part of Japan. Japan in effect was one of the tributary states to the Chinese in the 18 century, but in effect reversed that arrangement in the 19 century , where Chinese paid tribute to Japanese. Also Gained control over significant ports, its growth in the 20 century, led to invasion of Ventura establishment of Korea as a colony of Japan, and eventually the attempt by China during ww2 to regain control over all of China by brutal means, air power early on in ww2 attack on city of Chun Ching. Struggle against Japanese brought to power the Chinese nationalist forces under Kewl Ming Tung & eventually facilitated the rise to power of the current communist regime, under the leader of mount st. tun, Mount St Tun, in order to understand Chinese foreign policy, is important to understand the forces under chec, the Chinese national forces, did not surrender to Mount Sin Tun, but escaped to Taiwan, are predecessor of the current government, never officially recognized by Chinese governments in turn also did not recognize their government. Both governments claim to be the legitimate governments of all of China, this played the role & historically have played a role in Chinese foreign policy equivalent divide between Pakistan and India dominants India foreign policy, western countries and also the Soviet Government had closer ties to the Cheng Hi Shenk … and constantly recognize his government in Taiwan Russia departed from that early on in 1950s stated the Mainland of China be recognized in the UN, SU boycotting of the UN due to the USA vetoing this. Which allowed the Korean War to be created a solution under UN because SU was not there to veto authorization of the UN. Communism role in China. Situation in China not different circumstances communism established in Soviet Union, far from being an industrial state, Karl Marx would describe as circumstances right for development of Communism. vast majority of population of China is peasants, Chinese revolution largely a peasant based revolution, that reason to this day the peasant rebellion in much of India, “Nauxalite” is often referred to as Mauist rebellion, Russian revolution, despite part because the dominant base of support is among peasants the communist government were based on the small industries that did exist, the Russian communist party were fairly tiny minority in social makeup where peasant baserevolution in china were represented a large part of the population Russia revolution despite the fact the vast majority of population were also peasants, Russia communist government was based primarily were minority in terms of social makeup where the peasant based in China under leader confronted China with similar problems with those in SU, consolidating that revolution, building a Chinese communism, china has had a long culture based on confusion principles of a collectivism: the collectivism of China was not so alien to Chinese culture, the tradition of liberal individualism that was dominate in western Europe, was entirely alien to Chinese culture and was perceived as alien to Chinese culture under the king dynasty, when Europeans first made in roads to trying to influence Chinese culture. Political philosopher describes the major differences between western political culture & eastern political culture particularly china, lesser extent Japan as depending on fundamentally different analogy in regards to social origin of these political system to that of western countries western political thought is primarily based on “analogies to the market” meaning the way westerns view political communities is consisting of individuals that engage in social gathering for there own benefit. Thus the corner stone of liberal thought is Locke is fundamental question: what kind of political community is rationale for an individual person to accept. Answer: Society is legitimate in so far it advances the interest of the individual= negative hallucination: not seeing something that is there positive hallucination: seeing something that isn’t there Westerners have a hard time recognizing social coexistence and social cooperation e
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