Chapter Ten Notes
Motivation and Emotion
1. What is the distinction between drive and incentive theories of motivation?
- A drive is an internal state of tension (disruptions of our equilibrium) that motivates an
organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension.
(Example) If we go without food, we start to experience discomfort, and our internal tension
(the drive) motivates us to get food, so that we are once again satisfied.
- Incentive theories are external goals that have the capacity to motivate our behavior.
(Example) Ice cream, a juicy steak, an A on an exam, approval from friends, etc...
- Drive theories emphasize how an internal state of tension push people in a certain direction,
and the incentive theory emphasizes how external stimuli pull people in certain directions.
- For drive, motivation lies within the organism, and for incentive theories, the motivation lies
outside the organism, in the environment.
2. How do evolutionary theories explain various motives?
- They believe that motives are a product of natural selection that has adaptive value
(dominance, achievement, aggression, affiliation, sex drive, etc…).
- Evolutionary perspective assert that human motives, and other species, are products of
3. What are the two major categories of human motives?
- Biological motives that originate in bodily needs such as hunger, thirst, sleep, sex, and
- Psychosocial (social) motives that originate in social experiences, such as the need for
achievement, dominance, independence, amusement, etc…
- Motives are the needs, wants, interests, and desires that propel people in certain directions.
- In short, Motivation involves goal-directed behavior
- Organisms seek to maintain homeostasis “a state of physiological equilibrium/stability”.
(Example), our bodies reach a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius; if it goes up, we sweat, if it
goes down, we shiver, which is designed to help our body go back to its normal temp. Our body
reacts like this, so that it can go back to its normal equilibrium.
4. Which brain centres appear to control the experience of hunger?
- The hypothalamus:
!Lateral Hypothalamus (LH): if you cut this part of the brain, then there no interest in eating,
as if hunger was destroyed
!Ventromedial nucleus of the Hypothalamus (VMH): if you cut this part of the brain, then
you eat excessively, gain weight, and the feeling of “fullness” will no longer be there.
- Therefore the LH and the VMH (elements in neural circuitry) are the brains on-off switches for the
control of hunger.
- Although the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the hypothalamus, plays a larger role in hunger.