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Lecture

Chapter 7: Evolution by natural selection

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY230H5
Professor
Ulrich Schimmack

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Evolution by natural selection:
- Charles Darwin theory:
a) Individuals differ in various characteristics
b) These characteristics are to some extent transmitted directly – through
reproduction itself from parents to offspring
c) Some characteristics are associated with greater numbers of surviving
offspring – reproductive success
d) Across generations, those characteristics will become more widespread among
the individuals of the population
In humans:
- Individual differences among people
- Inheritance of characteristics
- Characteristics associated with reproductive success
- Changes across generations in levels of characteristics
How is variation maintained among humans?
- The variation in personality and physiological traits are unimportant to survival
and reproduction
- The importance of variation in combating infections by parasites. It is harder for
parasites to enter a body and infect it in a large population when there is much
variation.
Fluctuating optimum: why would variation in a trait be maintained across long
periods of time, why would one ideal level of the trait not simply defeat all
others?
- The ideal level of the characteristic might differ depending on environmental
conditions that change from one time and place to another. The average level of a
trait would gradually shift up or down within a given population in response to the
features of its current environment.
Frequency dependent selection:
- We see a rough balance in the population between people who have a higher and
lower level of the characteristic. Green bird, blue bird example page 147.
- The frequency dependence will prevent the levels of a trait from becoming
extremely high or extremely low within a given society.
Review Table 7-1 page 148.
Evolution / Sexuality
- men rank phys attractiveness more imp than wom (diffenrece = .54)
- women rank socio-econ stat & ambition more imp than man (diffeence= 0.68)
- willingness to have sex increases w length of relationship for men and wom
- but, knowing someone for 1 hr
. desire to have sex for men d=1.21 than wom
o The Evolutionary Explanation
- Men and women differ in minimal parental investment.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Evolution by natural selection: - Charles Darwin theory: a) Individuals differ in various characteristics b) These characteristics are to some extent transmitted directly through reproduction itself from parents to offspring c) Some characteristics are associated with greater numbers of surviving offspring reproductive success d) Across generations, those characteristics will become more widespread among the individuals of the population In humans: - Individual differences among people - Inheritance of characteristics - Characteristics associated with reproductive success - Changes across generations in levels of characteristics How is variation maintained among humans? - The variation in personality and physiological traits are unimportant to survival and reproduction - The importance of variation in combating infections by parasites. It is harder for parasites to enter a body and infect it in a large population when there is much variation. Fluctuating optimum: why would variation in a trait be maintained across long periods of time, why would one ideal level of t
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