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Lecture 7

PSY240H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: A Priori And A Posteriori, External Validity

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Hywel Morgan

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Lecture 7- psy240
Research methods
- DSM hasn’t used empirical research
- What is research ?
oStudying what’s going on around you
oNote taking
What is this topic important?
- To become a scientist
- Foundation for understanding research
- Become an informed and critical consumer of information
oYou are understanding more about correlation and causation
- To become a practitioner
oYou need to keep current with the research going on
- Introduces us to different ways of thinking
oMulti paragdigmatic
oSome ways are more sophisticated than others
oThere are 4 ways of thinking
- We are scientist practitioners and we come about this information looking at behaviour
norms, or anomalies
oScientists first then practitioners
Boulder model
- This is used to understand
Ways of thinking
- Tenacity
oLeast sophisticated
oRequires little energy (cognitive energy)
oWe all rely on it, probably the most
oBeliefs that are impervious to contrary evidence or experience
oYou tend to only pay attention to evidence that support your belief
oNot going to let go of them even if someone says to let go of them
oBest example: religion
- Authority
oGathering information from an authoritative figure
oSchool (getting information from your teacher)
Imposes their beliefs on your
Tend to learn the most amount of information
- A priori method
oBeliefs that are agreeable to reason
oUse logic

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oIf then
oA priori = before
Before the fact
Before you’ve tested for the fact, you came up with an a priori belief
oBeliefs in harmony with natural causes
Possessed by demon (natural cause)
The earth is flat
- Method of science
oYou can have an a priori logic, but until you test it, it can still be an a priori belief
oYou have an hypothesis, test it, and see if your belief was right or not
oMost sophisticated, and takes the most amount of energy
oYour findings must be reliable, which means someone else has to do it too
oMust be tested independent of opinion
Goals of research in psychology
- Describe behaviour
oPrescribe pathologies
- Predict behaviour
oIf you are acting like ____, I predict _____
o“I predict that if you don’t study you won’t do well”
- Explain behaviour
oExplain why
oWhat causes behaviour, how often to occurs
- Control behaviour
oYou want to control maladaptive behaviours, or behaviours that you, your friends,
family, or society don’t want
You may be hurting other people or yourself
The empirical method of science in psychology assumes:
- Behaviour follows certain rules
oEx: reflexes
oHow your behaviour in reaction to something
oCertain expectations
- Behaviour has causes
oCauses of language ? you need to be exposed to it, or it’s a biological
- Causes can be discovered using scientific methods
oYou can figure out why are you doing something
oYou want to find out the part of the brain that controls for certain areas
Lang: brocca’s hornickies
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