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Lecture 4

PSY352H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Biological Pump, Resting Potential, Action Potential

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Robert Gerlai

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Friday, January 31, 2014
Animal Psychology: Lecture 4
-synapses are deciding whether to send the information forward or send it back. There
are millions of neurones that have millions of synaptic connections that are sending
information from neurone to neurone.
-Neural communication is a series of electrical and chemical events. Neurone A, has
electrical transmission along the axon and chemical transmission at the synapse ->
Neurone B, has electrical transmission along dendrite, cell, body and axon. Synapses
evaluate the signal and decide to send it along or send it back. Thats how we learn
and process things around
-Neurones are negatively charged inside - this is called resting potential and it is
usually around -65mV.
-Action potential is a quick reversal of the negative resting potential (from -65mV to
+40mV) when the electrical power comes, the sodium channel that is normally closed
it opes and allow positive ions to come inside which will increase the positiveness of
the inside, and the charge will go up above 0. Once the neurone reaches the level of
depolarization, that time the sodium channel starts to close and the power goes again
down, even lower than the -65mV and it comes then again to the resting potential.
Everything depends on those opening and closing of those sodium and potassium
channels -> those channels determine how the action potential looks like.
-where does -65mV comes from? why is it more negative inside than outside? the
channels are never completely closed or completely open - there is always some
licking that allows some ions to drop around.
-there is a biological pump that removes the sodium ions from inside to the
outside while moving potassium ions from outside to the inside. Overall this
pump constantly moves positive ions from inside to the outside, and it is that
pump that actually makes -65mV possible.
-reason why brain consumes so much energy is that just to maintain this action
potential or resting potential require great amount of energy
-everything that your brain does is based on the electric communication by turning
the electric signal into the chemical signals and then again to the electric signals
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