Lecture 6 Feb 9th 2012
Question: Scientists test right or wrong
Answer: Not true because you can’t test if something is wrong
-Scientific theories must be falsifiable No scientific theory is ever proven to be correct
in the absolute sense of the word.
Theory Vs. hypothesis
•Usually reserved for comprehensive explanation that is built up over time based on the
•usually used when scientists are just beginning to explore an area
• Often more narrow in scope than theories.
•Observation theory prediction experiment revision theory
•Most of the time there is no right answerwe just have evidence to prove certain
Language-specific cries in newborns
•(figure 2. time waveform and narrow-band spectrograms … Mampe et al., 2009,
Current Biology & figure 1 on back of last yrs photocopy notes
•Is there a problem with this statement?
o Maple et al. (2009) proved that language heard while still in the womb leads
French and German newborns to cry differently (both cry in a fashion that
resembles their mother’s language)
o Not proved just tested.
**Question: What are some possible alternate explanations for Maple et al.’s results?
Answer: Maybe the infants were measured before or after they ate so u were actually getting
their hungry cry
Experiment Vs. Exploratory study?
oNo specific hypothesis to test
oMay help discover new aspects of a theory (develop new theories)
oEx. Asking different musicians to play music and just record it without any
specific variable to be tested
oA specific hypothesis to be tested
oEx. Maple et al study of newborn cries
Speech is characterized by:
1. Lack of invariance (no 2 segments or words are ever produced in an identical fashion
2. Severe reductions in spontaneous speech.
a. Ex. Should have = should’ve or “I went to the store” sounds like “I went t’the
3. Lack of reliable cues to word boundaries