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Lecture 8

PSY210 Lecture 8.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Elizabeth Johnson

PSY210 Lecture 8 March 12 , 2012 ACCESS CODE: MER YVV LNI REVIEW Balance Beam Task -even pre-operational stage kids can solve easy balance problems -only concrete operational stage kids notice that distance from center of balance matters -only formal operational stage people can begin to weight and integrate different factors (number and size of weights as well as distance from center) -ability to integrate and weight information gradually improves Challenges of Piaget‟s Model -Neo-nativists: infants are born with substantial knowledge about the physical world how might motor ability affect performance on Piaget‟s tasks? -RECALL: Habituation studies -violation of expectations: infants as young as 3 ½ months stared longer at the impossible event understand physical world better than Piaget gave them credit for small carrot behind screen and disappears possible event tall carrot disappears behind window stare longer..where did it go? Physical laws example Box on surface slides Box slides off surface and doesn‟t fall..why isn‟t it falling? Can infants count? -sensitivity to numbers at 5 months old! Rational Imitation by 14 month olds -woman who has arms wrapped in blankets -in other picture hands on table -both cases pushing light with head -then experimenter leaves what would you do? If hands are busy, touch with head Use their head because saw adult with free hands, do it because assume it‟s a special light Rational Imitation at 12 months Dog put through chimney where door was either closed or open -more likely to put dog through chimney when door was open Awareness of other minds -12 month olds are more likely to point to help an experimenter find a “dropped” object if the experimenter does not see the object dropped Vygotsky‟s Sociocultural Theory -cognitive development is driven by collaborative dialogues -development varies from culture to culture -four interrelated levels of analysis -ontogenetic development -microgenetic development -phylogenetic development -sociohistorical development Sociocultural Theory Collaborative/cooperative learning: -more motivated when working with others -to explain ideas to one another and to resolve conflicts more likely to use Zone of proximal development Difference between: 1)what learner can accomplish alone, and 2)what learner can accomplish with guidance of a more skilled partner Scaffolding process of the tutor tailoring his/her support level based on learner‟s competence Piaget vs. Vygotsky -Vygotsky saw cognitive development as varying across cultures whereas Piaget theory was supposed to be universal -Vygotsky thought cognitive growth stems from social interactions whereas Piaget thought it stemmed largely form independent explorations where child constructs knowledge on their own INTELLIGENCE What is Intelligence? -psychologists do not completely agree about how to define and measure intelligence -but many tests assume to measure intelligence in infants, children and adults -some consensus among general public, university students, and psychologists -varies across cultures what is defined as intelligence -people generally agree that three behaviours are involved: problem solving abilities verbal ability social competence Major Questions Are differences in intelligence caused by environmental factors, genetic factors, or both? Are these differences permanent, or can they be changed? Issues defining theories of intelligence Is intelligence unitary or multi-faceted? Is it determined by genetic of environmental factors? Does it predict success in school as well as success outside school? Psychometrics -the measurement of psychological traits/abilities -using standardized tests to identify individual differences -psychometrician-designer of intelligence tests (always guided by a particular theory of intelligence) -test norms are the values or sets of values that describe the typical performance of a specific group of people Test Validity & Reliability -validity is the extent to which a test actually measures what it claims to measure -reliability is the degree to which a test yields consistent results over successive administrations Psychometrics vs. Piaget -individual differences rather than commonalities in development -quantitative rather than qualitative -concerned with produced (IQ scores) rather than underlying processes -pragmatic rather than theoretical -psychometrics focus on what school is best for you and occupation -Piaget more theoretical Alfred Binet -asked by French government to devise objective test to identify mentally retarded pupils -first test (Binet & Simon, 1905) measured “general mental ability”, including verbal and non-verbal reasoning tasks -successful at predicting school performance -adapted for use in the U.S. in 1916 at Stanford U. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale -intelligence quotient (IQ)= (mental age/chronological age) x 100 -IQ scores from a variety of tests are now standardized to have a normal distribution with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of about 15 -130 = gifted 2 standard deviations above average, 70=mentally challenged Intelligence tests for children 1. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (age 2-adulthood) -yields 4 scores (verbal reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, quantitative reasoning, and short-term memory) plus an overall IQ score 2. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: WISC-IV (6-16 years; WPPSI: 3-8 years) -verbal IQ, performance (non-verbal) IQ, and Full-Scale IQ Block Design Task: -child is shown a red and white pattern and asked to recreate it with blocks Matrix Reasoning Task: -child sees grid with all but four squares and has to pick out which of 5 pictures logically completes the set Digit Span Task: -examiner says a list of numbers, each longer than last, and ask child to repeat them in same or reversed order Similarities Task: -child given a pair of words and asked to explain how they are alike Weakness of Wechsler‟s and Stanford-Binet test? culture-fair test: a test that attempts to minimize cultural biases in content that might influence the test taker‟s responses Intelligence tests for children: 3. Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children: K-ABC (2-12 years) -two subscales (sequential and simultaneous processing) and a composite scale -emphasis on mental processing What is weakness of all IQ tests? -we can only infer intellectual capacity from the results of an IQ test -although we can assume that capacity and performance are related, we can only measure performance -always some gap b/w capacity and performance due to factors like emotional state (e.g. children moving b/w lots of foster homes tend to show unstable IQ) achievement motivation -mastery oriented—do not give up easily when faced with hard questions -helpless—blame themselves and give up when faced with hard questions Achievement motivation -mastery oriented children have learning goals and are more concerned with learning than they are with how people will judge the
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