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Lecture 10

PSY210 Lecture 10.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Elizabeth Johnson

PSY210 Lecture 10 Access Code: TET SZD BRK Review Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model of development -emphasizes importance of the child’s interactions with people and institutions in child’s life as well as social and cultural institutions, attitudes, and belief systems in the child’s environment Parenting Styles -can be described in terms of parent involvement and parent control Summarizing: parenting style is strongly correlated with particular types of child outcomes Warm, responsive Rejecting, unresponsive Restricting, demanding Authoritative Authoritarian (conflicted- (energetic-friendly child) irritable child) Permissive, understanding Permissive (impulsive- Uninvolved (mood, aggressive child) troubled child) Most positive outcome=authoritative -set guide lines, have boundaries that can be crossed but be able to talk about things Bullying -boys and girls bully differently -bystanders play a key role -huge variation in bystanders responses -adults play a key roleif adults don’t stop bullying, it encourages situation even more and makes it difficult for child bystanders to stand up if adult doesn’t -measured bullying: actors as bully or victim (who were actually picked on), measured child’s response Boys will be boys? Girls will be girls? -biological sex linked to clear physical differences -males physical strength is greater -biological description of gender: one with the larger gamete=female -gender identity: the perception of oneself as either masculine or feminine -gender stereotypes: beliefs that members of a culture hold about how females and males ought to behave, that is, what behaviours are acceptable and appropriate for each Gender Typical Behaviour -may be exaggerated when reach adolescence or become parent expressive characteristics presumably typical of females, these characteristics include nurturance and concern with feelings instrumental characteristics presumably typical of males, these characteristics include task and occupation orientation Are gender differences real? -boys are more likely to be miscarried prior to birth, girls are physiologically and neurologically more advanced at birth -girls tend to excel in verbal skills and boys tend to excel in certain spatial tasks (like map reading and mentally rotating objects in space) -boys and girls are both aggressive, but in their own way males more physically aggressive, females engage in more relational aggression -relational aggression: a form of verbal aggression in which children try to hurt others by undermining their social relationships -spatial relational tasks: leveled glass and then tip the glass..would the water fall that way, yes or no? boys are better Overlapping Distributions -girls who read worse than average boy, boys who read better than average girl won’t be the same for each individual -distributions slightly off Less Solid Gender Differences -some (but not all) studies suggest boys are more active than girls -some (but not all) studies suggest boys are more vulnerable to stress -young children do not exhibit differences in timidity or dependency Gender Awareness -by 18 months, children preferentially attend to gender-reflective toys child either was looking at vehicle or doll boys look more at vehicles and girls looking more at dolls at 18 months -by 24 months infants readily identify gender-inconsistent behaviour woman/man putting on lipstick, or woman/man hammering a nail, woman/man putting in light bulb by 24 months pick up gender differences, so look at man longer putting on lipstick and look at woman longer when hammering nail -by 2 to 3 years, children readily identify themselves as a boy or a girl -around 6 or 7, children learn attain gender constancy Gender Constancy -the awareness that superficial alterations in appearance or activity do not alter gender -male and female doll…can differentiate between both but once male is given purse say he is a girl before 6 years, after 6 years able to understand concept that doll is still male just with a purse Choice of Companionship -by about 4.5 years, children spend three times as much time with same-sex playmates as with other-gender peers -by about 6.5 years, children spend 11 times as much time with same-sex playmates as with other-gender children -boy and girls play very differently Environmental Influences? -fathers tend to treat their children in a more gender-specific manner than mothers
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