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Chapter 7: Evolution by natural selection

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Ulrich Schimmack

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Evolution by natural selection: - Charles Darwin theory: a) Individuals differ in various characteristics b) These characteristics are to some extent transmitted directly through reproduction itself from parents to offspring c) Some characteristics are associated with greater numbers of surviving offspring reproductive success d) Across generations, those characteristics will become more widespread among the individuals of the population In humans: - Individual differences among people - Inheritance of characteristics - Characteristics associated with reproductive success - Changes across generations in levels of characteristics How is variation maintained among humans? - The variation in personality and physiological traits are unimportant to survival and reproduction - The importance of variation in combating infections by parasites. It is harder for parasites to enter a body and infect it in a large population when there is much variation. Fluctuating optimum: why would variation in a trait be maintained across long periods of time, why would one ideal level of t
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