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PSY240 Lecture 2.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Hywel Morgan

PSY240 Lecture 2  prefix "ab" means "not"  "norm" means average/ within one standard deviation of the average  DSM-IV-TR (text revision)  o revised text, did not change any diagnostic categories  DSM-V will have categorical changes (new diagnoses)  motivation for development of DSM-V b/c gathering statistical data was too hard, required a lot of data  DSM, DSM-II, DSM-III, DSM-IIIR (revision), DSM-IV, DSM-IVTR, DSM-V What is Abnormal Behaviour? (a) Statistical Criteria  look at data, find statistical norms, abnormal behaviour considered based on infrequency  factor analysis = clusters of variables that tend to occur together  abnormal behaviours that occur at the same time = symptoms (b) Cultural Norms  incl. social norms  interested in normative information  what is normal in one culture /society, may not be normal in another  most commonly used IQ test = WAIS (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale)  o uses multiple sub tests to examine visuospatial intelligence and verbal intelligence o one subtest called "information" - standardized statistically o  1Q: How many senators are there in the United States Senate? A: 100  there clearly is one abnormal behaviour that is considered disordered, pathological in almost all cultures: schizophrenia  o 2 major symptoms of schizophrenia(seen cross-culturally): delusions, and hallucinations that make schiz. a psychotic behaviour b/c they are so extreme o psychotic = person has lost touch with reality (not in touch with the reality of what's going on around them) o delusions = false beliefs that you hold, that nobody else does o hallucinations = perceiving/ experiencing stimuli that do not exist o  from 5 senses: gustatory system(sweet, salty, fatty, sour, bitter)  auditory (vibrations in the air) - most common hallucinations among schizophrenics  visual - also common  olfactory (chemicals sensed from partially exposed receptors in upper nasal cavity)  somatosensory [receptors for temperature, pressure, vibrations, and pain]  6th sense: vestibular system (sense of balance, where you are in space) o it is normal for children to experience hallucinations (spontaneuous, not drug- induced) o  ex. having an imaginary friend  another psychotic behaviour = autism (first diagnosed in children); also widely considered abnormal cross-culturally  anxiety most commonly measured through self reports (subjective measure)  not many objective measures for pain, anxiety, and depression (c) Developmental norms  language development: expected by age 2 to have a vocabulary of 30-50 words in which other children and adults can understand you (simple sentences)
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