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Lecture 4

PSY213 Lecture 4.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Giampaolo Moraglia

PSY213 Lecture 4 - Jan 31, 2013 MEMORY AND AGING  effects of aging in memory depend on area of memory  metaanalysis provide quantitative summaries from a large amount of data on a certain topic  o look at all studies to particular topic and do statistical tests to find a general explanation  most studies considered are cross-sectional designs (diff. age groups at same point in time that are in comparatively good health)  o investigate intra-individual variability to remove effects from different cohorts o great amount of vriability /w individuals within an older cohort (since differences b//w individuals increase w/age) o  affects averaging and needs to be taken into consideration during study 1. Memory can be categorized in several different ways •Storehouses –Sensory memory –Short term memory –Long term memory •Declarative vs. non declarative (procedural memory) •Implicit vs. explicit •Retrospective vs. prospective •Processing operations –Encoding –Storage –Retention 2. Age related changes •Sensory memory holds up well  temporarily retains information  little effect from aging  experiment: showing two dot grids with a few dots missing simultaneuosly and within 100ms of each other shows same picture of full dot grid  o proves that sensory memory exists b/c you would have to remember first dot grid to be able to see a full dot grid since dots were missing from both grids •Short term memory –Passive STM little affected –Working memory declines appreciably  retention of current event for a brief period  can measure capacity of short term memory by asking subject to repeat a list of numbers just read to them and seeing how many they can remember  STM also referred to as working memory  o ex. multiplication 8x9; hold number 8 and number 9 and perform operation on them  small age difference in STM found from metaanalytical study  o age differences become noticeable when operations have to be performed •Long term memory (extended period of time) –Implicit LTM much less affected than explicit LTM –Non declarative (procedural) LTM holds up well –Declarative LTM variously affected (next)  ranges from several minutes to 50 years  incl. general knowledge, meanings of words , everything that you know about the world  implicit memory: operations are effortless and unintentional  explicit:: operations intentional, and require conscious effort  effects of implicit memory by age decline are much smaller than for explicit memory  implicit test: participants given category names and told to give 6 examples of this category (ex. mammal)  we have less trouble to spontaneously remember information (implicit memory) than consciously remember  declarative memory: memory that can be stated (declared); non-declarative (procedural) ex. riding bike, playing piano  most explicit memories are declarative; implicit memories mostly non- declarative  study: >500 adults range from teens to older adults  o use fingers to slide small nut off of a rod o found that older adults retained how to do it two years later when tested again 3. Declarative LTM •Semantic variety holds up well with age with minor declines after age 65 •Episodic variety declines appreciably with age –Episodic memory changes occur at •Encoding •Retention •Retrieval  TULVING (1972) - Distinction b/w semantic memory and episodic memory  semantic: tests of general knowledge facts etc.  episodic memory holds upto age 40-60 on average and then large steady decline  semantic memory increases b/w 35- 60 then levels off and starts to decline at age 65 much less severe than with episodic memory 4. Episodic memory, cont’nd •Encoding –Incidental encoding remains quite efficient –Intentional encoding significantly affected by age  meta-analytical studies found larger age-related effect on intentional encoding  older adults do not spontaneously use strategies that are as effective in encoding and retrieval for young adults  o encoding processing used by younger individuals not put to use by older adults •Retention (Storage) –A somewhat obscure picture –Generally, age d
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