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Lecture 9

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY321H5
Professor
Simone Walker
Semester
Winter

Description
1Psy321Lecture 9March 27 2014Culture and Social BehaviorLecture OutlineCultureperson perception Culture face recognitionphysical attractivenessCultureattractionCulture lovemarriageCulturefriendshipCulturegroup processesCulture and intergroup relationsPerson PerceptionProcess of forming impressions of othersUniversalAbility to form reliable impressionsAgreement across culturesSingle culture studies within culture agreement tend to form impressions of others in similar ways Ex American and Chinese Ss judgements of personality traits associated with photographs of faces People with older looking faces worldly wise high levels within culture agreement in contrast to younger faces When cultures see other faces cross cultural agreement when inferring faces Ex American vs Chinese were similar to each other In addition separate studies looked at predictive validity whether or not people are able to predict real world implication or real world behaviours found high levels of agreement Can predict when candidate could win a vote based on face impression from photos Seen as nave Predict real world outcomes whether this candidate will win a election Impressions of faces also have predictive validityCulturePerson PerceptionBut culture influences the way that we perceive othersEx Rule et al 2010American and Japanese Ss made nave inferences about the traits of American and Japanese political candidatesHigh agreement across culturesHigh predictive validity of inferences in terms of actual votesCandidates being more competent based on person perception were likely to win election Form perception and predictive validity separate Even though process of person perception is universal culture influences this American and Japanese political candidates rated how competent each candidate would be Found high levels of agreement So rating inferred regarding photos of candidates were similar across American and Japanese culturesParticipants asked to whether or not the candidate would win an election Data collected if they actually did win Found participates good at predicting which candidate would win based on traits inferred Ex more competent than others were likely to win Culture influencesEx Rule et al 2010Inferences that predicted electoral success differed across cultures2Ex American judgments better predicted electoral outcomes of American candidatesEx Japanese judgments better predicted electoral outcomes of Japanese candidatesCultural difference Japanese more predictive of Japanese candidatesSuggest process of person perception is universal similar across cultures when inferences of others better at same culture and need more knowledge to make accurate statements from people in other cultures Ex Ozono et al 2010American and Japanese Ss rated faces in terms of trustworthinessFaces varied according to the intensity depicted in the lower half eg smiling mouth versus upper half eg smiling eyesAmericanstrustworthiness intensity lower halfJapanesetrustworthiness intensity upper halfRate each face in terms of trustworthiness Varied in smiling Ieeye in intense smilingAmericans rated with mouth Japanese rated with eyes smiling more intenselyCulture influences impressions formed of others Consistent with cultural display rules Japanese engage in masking which is a display rule in which an expression on the face inconsistent with inside feeling Cultures who mask their emotion they tend to pay attention to eyes because more difficult to control eyes and how they are actually feelingCulture where do not engage in masking will look at mouth which provides info about subjective traits Japanese masking emotion in different social context looking at eyes will show trustworthinessAmerican masking not the norm more attention to mouth to determine trustworthinessCultureFace RecognitionSamerace bias in ability to recognize facesWellreplicated finding and supported in metaanalysesWhy might this bias existAttitudes social orientation task difficulty and experienceIntergroup contactOrienting strategiesDifferent selfschemasActual differences in perception and classificationBetter at own race because more contact ie family members friends live in close proximity to own raceOver time high level of familiarity to faces of our own race so better at recognizing own race then other races Ex study showed that when participants asked to recognize faces in other and own races must make judgemental Must closely examine faces because must do something with that info later Bias disappears has to do with orienting strategies Or selfschemas Schemas mental framework that organizes info Schemas regarding ourselves ie what we are like values morals beliefs preferences and behaviors Regarding past biographical memories Perhaps not race but self schemas that influence how people recognize faces in own races and other races Support for different cultures actually perceive and classify faces in different ways At perceptual level differences across cultures that lead to biasAll support for these except intergroup contact
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