Lecture 6 Feb 9 2012
Question: Scientists test right or wrong
Answer: Not true because you can’t test if something is wrong
- Scientific theories must be falsifiable No scientific theory is ever proven to be correct
in the absolute sense of the word.
Theory Vs. hypothesis
• Usually reserved for comprehensive explanation that is built up over time based on the
• usually used when scientists are just beginning to explore an area
• Often more narrow in scope than theories.
• Observation theory prediction experiment revision theory
• Most of the time there is no right answerwe just have evidence to prove certain
Language-specific cries in newborns
• (figure 2. time waveform and narrow-band spectrograms … Mampe et al., 2009,
Current Biology & figure 1 on back of last yrs photocopy notes
• Is there a problem with this statement?
o Maple et al. (2009) proved that language heard while still in the womb leads
French and German newborns to cry differently (both cry in a fashion that
resembles their mother’s language)
o Not proved just tested.
**Question: What are some possible alternate explanations for Maple et al.’s results?
Answer: Maybe the infants were measured before or after they ate so u were actually getting
their hungry cry
Experiment Vs. Exploratory study?
• Exploratory study
o No specific hypothesis to test
o May help discover new aspects of a theory (develop new theories)
o Ex. Asking different musicians to play music and just record it without any
specific variable to be tested
o A specific hypothesis to be tested
o Ex. Maple et al study of newborn cries
Speech is characterized by:
1. Lack of invariance (no 2 segments or words are ever produced in an identical fashion
2. Severe reductions in spontaneous speech.
a. Ex. Should have = should’ve or “I went to the store” sounds like “I went t’the
3. Lack of reliable cu