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Lecture 12

motivation lecture 12

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY399H5
Professor
Adams
Semester
Summer

Description
Motivation
and
Emotion
 
 
 Drives
 • motivation‐‐a
specific
need,
desire
or
want
that
prompts
goal‐directed
behavior
 
 • drives‐‐goal‐directed
tendencies
based
on
a
change
in
an
organism's
biological
state
 – for
example,
you
are
deprived
of
nutrition
and
you
will
become
hungry.
Hunger
then
is
a
 primary
drive
 • primary
drives‐‐unlearned,
innate
drives
 • secondary
drives‐‐learned
and
acquired
through
experience.
 
 • research
has
been
conducted
to
determine
what
are
our
most
important
primary
drives
 • rats
were
placed
in
a
box
and
given
access
to
a
second
box
via
an
electrified
grid
 • results
from
this
study
indicate
that
the
following
are
to
top
five
motivators
(or
the
top
five
things
 that
would
cause
rats
to
go
from
box
A
to
box
B):
 1. 

 2. 

 3. 

 4. 

 5. 
 
 Instincts
 • drives
are
different
from
instincts
in
that
instincts
are
unchanging
sequences
of
behavior
that
are
 species‐specific
 – for
example,
salmon
swim
up
river
to
spawn,
a
behavior
not
seen
in
other
species
 
 Biological
Bases
 • the
septum
is
the
primary
pleasure
center
in
the
brain
 – mild
stimulation
induces
pleasure
and
sexual
arousal
 – it
also
acts
to
inhibit
aggression
 – if
the
septal
area
is
damaged,
aggressive
behavior
occurs‐‐this
is
called
septal
rage
 
 • drive
reduction
theory‐‐biological
needs
motive
our
behavior
 • homeostasis‐‐a
state
of
balance
in
the
body;
being
out
of
homeostasis
creates
a
need
necessitating
 a
drive
 
 • the
arousal
theory
states
that
there
is
an
optimal
level
of
arousal
for
a
given
task
 – low
levels
of
arousal
are
needed
for
hard
tasks
that
require
concentration
and
focus
 – moderate
levels
are
needed
for
moderately
difficult
tasks
 – high
levels
are
needed
for
tasks
that
require
endurance
and
persistence
 
 • the
opponent‐process
theory
of
motivation
states
that
for
each
motivating
drive
there
is
also
a
 disincentive
to
that
drive
 – once
an
individual
is
satiated
for
a
particular
drive,
there
is
an
opposite
or
opponent
drive
to
 avoid
fulfilling
that
drive
(e.g.
once
you’ve
eaten
you
are
no
longer
hungry
and
stop
searching
 for
food)
 – in
addictive
behaviors,
once
the
addictive
behavior
is
performed
and
lessens
in
intensity,
there
 is
a
rebound
effect
where
the
opponent
drive
remains
active
 – more
and
more
of
the
addictive
substance
is
then
needed
to
achieve
the
desired
result,
 thereby
leading
to
addiction
 
 • the
main
drives
are
hunger,
thirst
and
sex‐‐these
are
all
connected
to
the
functioning
of
the
 hypothalamus
 • the
hypothalamus
regulates
temperature,
metabolism
and
water
balance
 • it
also
has
a
role
in
arousal,
aggressive
behavior
and
sexual
behavior
 
 Biological
Bases:
Hunger
 • the
lateral
hypothalamus
(LH)
involves
the
hunger
center
 • the
LH
tells
the
organism
when
to
begin
eating
and
drinking
 – damage
to
the
LH
can
cause
aphagia‐‐a
refusal
to
eat
or
drink
voluntarily
to
the
point
the
 organism
must
be
force‐fed
through
tubes
 • the
LH
also
plays
a
role
in
rage
and
fighting
 
 • the
ventromedial
hypothalamus
(VMH)
involves
the
satiety
center
 • the
VMH
tells
the
individual
when
he
or
she
has
eaten
enough
 – brain
lesions
in
the
VMH
typically
lead
to
overeating
and
obesity‐‐this
is
called
hyperphagia
 
 • the
glucostatic
hypothesis
asserts
that
hunger
is
tied
to
glucose
levels
in
the
body
 – glucose
levels
do
appear
to
influence
the
immediate
perception
of
hunger
and
feelings
of
 satiation
 • the
lipostatic
hypothesis
asserts
that
hunger
is
tied
to
fat
levels
in
the
body
 – fat
levels
do
appear
to
be
involved
with
general
eating
patterns
 • there
is
general
agreement
that
both
glucose
and
fat
levels
influence
hunger
 
 • set­point
theory‐‐the
theory
that
the
hypothalamus
wants
to
maintain
a
certain
body
weight
 – will
trigger
eating
and
lower
metabolic
rate
when
we
drop
below
that
weight
 – will
trigger
cessation
of
eating
and
elevate
metabolic
rate
when
we
hit
the
set
point
 
 Eating
Disorders
 • The
three
most
common
eating
disorders
are:
 – bulimia­­eating
large
amounts
of
food
(binging)
and
then
getting
rid
of
the
food
through
 excessive
exercise,
use
of
laxatives
or
vomiting
(purging)
 – anorexia
nervosa‐‐individuals
who
starve
themselves
to
the
point
their
body
weight
drops
 below
85%
of
normal;
mostly
women
 – obesity‐‐individuals
who
are
severely
overweight;
typically
these
individuals
have
unhealthy
 eating
habits
 
 Thirst
 • osmoregulation‐‐a
condition
in
which
osmoreceptors
in
the
hypothalamus
determine
the
water
 level
in
the
body
 – if
the
water
levels
are
too
low,
osmoreceptors
release
an
antidiuretic
hormone
to
compensate
 for
the
level
 • volumetric
sensors
in
the
hypothalamus
measure
water
levels
at
the
extracellular
level
 – if
the
water
levels
are
too
low,
the
hormone
angiotensin
is
released
that
causes
the
individual
 to
feel
thirsty,
thereby
leading
to
drinking
behavior
 
 Pain
 • the
gate
theory
of
pain
states
that
a
special
gating
mechanism
found
in
the
spinal
cord
can
turn
 pain
signals
on
and
off
 • this
affects
whether
the
individual
feels
pain
or
not
because
if
blocks
the
perception
of
pain
from
 the
brain
 
 Stimulus
Motives
 • stimulus
motives
are
unlearned
motives
that
prompt
us
to
explore
or
change
the
world
around
us
 • they
come
in
several
types:
 – exploration
or
curiosity
are
directed
at
finding
out
about
the
world
around
us
 – manipulation
or
contact
involves
touching
or
handling
an
object
before
we
are
satisfied
 
 Harlow
Studies
 • the
classic
study
on
the
need
for
contact
was
conducted
by
Harry
Harlow
 • newborn
baby
monkeys
were
separated
at
birth
and
provide
with
two
surrogate
mothers
 – one
made
of
cloth
 – the
other
made
of
wire
but
equipped
with
a
nursing
bottle
 – both
were
warmed
by
a
light
bulb
 
 • Harlow
discovered
that
the
baby
monkeys
preferred
the
cloth
surrogate
over
the
wire
surrogate
 that
fed
them
 • this
illustrates
the
importance
of
affection,
cuddling
and
closeness
 
 Learned
Motives
 • there
are
a
variety
of
learned
motives
that
also
direct
our
behavior:
 • aggression­­behavior
aimed
at
harming
others;
this
can
be
seen
in
road
rage
behaviors
 • frustration­aggression
theory­­unique
to
western
cultures,
states
that
when
our
goals
are
blocked,
 we
become
frustrated;
when
we
become
too
frustrated,
we
become
aggressive
 • achievement‐‐the
need
to
excel
and
to
overcome
obstacles;
frequently
seen
in
high
school
 students!
 • power‐‐the
need
to
win
recognition
or
to
influence
or
control
other
people;
people
who
always
 must
be
in
charge
of
groups
or
decisions
would
illustrate
this
power
motive
 • affiliation‐‐the
need
to
be
with
others;
formed
groups
such
as
clubs
are
unnecessary,
just
merely
 being
with
others,
like
in
a
shopping
mall
 

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