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SOC100H5 (961)
Jayne Baker (345)
Lecture

SOC100 Lecture 2.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC100H5
Professor
Jayne Baker
Semester
Winter

Description
January 10, 2013 SOC100: Theory I Development of Sociology - Four key historical shifts - Growth of science, industrial revolution and capitalism, the rise of states and political revolutions, urbanization 1) Growth of Science - Emile Derkheim wanted to create a kind of social science (a science of society) - How can we apply that to society? - Derkheim influenced extensively by positivism - Positivism: cornerstone of natural sciences; real research can be objective and value-free - Derkheim wanted to apply positivism to the science of society - Signaled a move away from religion - There was a real move away from influence of religion as science interest grew - Science challenged religious-rooted beliefs 2) Industrial Revolution and Capitalism - A move awth from athiculture to factories and machinery - Late 18 and 19 centuries - Brought huge changes to how people made a living and where they were living - Capitalism: - Farmers made profit from work on land - Factories were owned by one person and that person had many people working for him - Owner of factory made money and workers didn’t really make a lot - Capitalism was related to an idea of free-market place - Wanted to bring down wages of workers as much as possible 3) Urbanization - People started moving away from farms to over-populated cities with factories - They had lots of land and close to family then moved to cities where there was a lot of overpopulation and not as close-knit 4) Rise of State and Political Revolutions January 10, 2013 - State refers to government - Back in 18 and 19 century, government started to have more control over citizens because of these factors - They built roads and buildings and controlled health and education, etc. - They had a lot of control over citizens in terms of - Political revolution because of people not being happy about it Theory: a foundation to discipline - Gives ability to analyze and use sociological perspective in different ways - Two criterions for theory  Theories have to be critical (empiricism)  Sociological (keeping societies in perspective) Four Major Theories in Sociology - Structural Functionalism - Conflict theory - Symbolic interactionism - Feminist Theory Structural functionalism (Functionalism) - A theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts works together to promote solidarity and stability - Created by Emile Durkheim - While influenced by positivism, also influenced by ideal of society as a natural organism (natural science) - Applied idea to society - There are a lot of components to society, if one is dysfunctional then everything will be dysfunctional - Like a machine - Durkheim put greater emphasis on society than individual - He wasn’t interested in micro level, but rather macro (bigger picture) - Really interested in stability - Stability, equilibrium and social solidarity is what makes society functional - These parts don’t work well together, there’s a lot of instability and dysfunction - Example: Education January 10, 2013  Schools serve the purpose of socializing children into being good social citizens of Canada.  Structural Functionalist: Let’s look at when recess is over and when children line up. This demonstrates how children are socialized into being orderly organized citizens.  These function
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