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SOC205H5 (139)

Lecture 4

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Paula Maurutto

SOC205-THEORIES IN CRIMINOLOGY LECTURE 4: 1/31/2014 MIDTERM INFORMATION Part a: long essay (choice of 2)10% -how well do it explain crime/behavior Part b: define and explain significance of 2 concepts (pick 2 out of 5) 5% each -what is the born criminal? What are sheldons body types? Describe and explain the significance? SOCIAL CONTROL THEORIES Introduction: Control Theory -the question asked by control theorist: why do ppl conform? -rise of civil rights mvmt, Vietnam war protests, time of strong hipppies mvmt (a lot of social turmoil) -made these theories right for social control -ppl are socialized into conforming behavior—so why do they conform -crime is natural -criminality is a normal part of human nature -why do ppl resist criminal temptation -learn motivation to not commit crime from others Control Theories -Hirschi’ social control theory -Gottfredson & Hirschi’s General Theory of Crime Early Control Theorist: Albert J. Reiss -first to discuss control theory -attempted to predict juvenile delinquency by explaining personal and social controls -personal control: the ability of the individual to refrain from meeting needs in ways which conflict with the norms and rules of the community -indivisual need to resist temptation -social control: the ability of social groups or institutions to make norms or rules effective -external factors that make us resist to ommit crime Early Control Theorist: F. Ivan Nye (family as in institution) -sought to explain why delinquent and criminal behavior is not more common -family most important social control over adolescents -the family could generate: 1. direct control: external forces (teachers or police officers) 2. internalized control: internal forces or conscience (mechanisms that allow you to regulate own behavior) 3. indirect control: extent of affection and identification with authority figures (authority figures work to keep you in line and prevent he engaging in criminal behavior) 4. control through alternative means of need satisfaction: “delivery of goods” in a legitmate way (making acceptable way to achieve your goals) -these types of control are mutually reinforcing -take away the focus on family and its impact Neutralization and Drift Theory: Sykes and Matza -if the social pressures causing delinquency were so powerful, why was it that even the worst delinquents seems to be fairly conventional ppl, actually conforming in so many other ways? -they may engage in criminal behavior but for the most part are law abiding ppl -why did most no continue law-violating behavior beyond a certain age? -five techniques of Neutralization 1. Denial of responsibility: I couldn’t help myself, I am not really a bad kid, 2. Denial of injury: no one is really getting hurt, cannot empathize 3. Denial of the victim: they had it coming, they deserved it 4. Condemnation of the condemners: dismissing any criticisms 5. Appeal to higher loyalties: I did it for someone else - take a temporary break from moral restraint -they are not incapable of conforming, they conform most of the time Travis Hirschi, 1935 -social control theory -self-control theory -wrote causes of delinquency -wrote about the 4 social bonds -theories become popular in the 70’s and 80’s -he argues you are undersocialized, and don’t have sufficient bonds Hirschi’s First Theory: Social Bonds and Deliquency -d
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