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SOC263H5 (89)

Understanding Power: The Persistence of Social Hierarchies/Exclusion

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Mary Jo Nadeau

SOC263 January 12 th Understanding Power: The Persistence of Social Hierarchies/Exclusion Social Exclusion - structures and dynamic processes of inequality among groups in society which, over time: o structure access to critical resources o determine the quality of membership in society o produce and reproduce a complex of unequal outcomes (ex social inequality) Canada’s Creeping Economic Apartheid - the growing racialization of the gap between the rich and the poor in Canada (outcomes) o persistent income gap o above average poverty levels o high unemployment levels o high underemployment levels o over represented in low-income jobs/sectors (part-time, temp, home-work, non- union) o under represented in high income jobs/sectors (managerial, professional, unionized jobs) Social Exclusion – 4 Dimensions 1. from civil society – legal or institutional exclusion, based on citizenship 2. failure to provide for needs of particular groups – ex. disabilities accommodations, income security 3. from social production – denial of opportunities to participate in society 4. economic exclusion – unequal access to normal forms of social consumption Arenas of Social Exclusion: Cumulative Effect - public sector: healthcare, schools/education, welfare, pensions, childcare, transportation - private sector: jobs, housing, food security - neighbourhoods: housing stock, access to public services, over-policing, resources - political representation: governments, states, elections, voting - social/cultural: space, movement, activities Power “…social exclusion is an expression of unequal relations of power among groups in societym which then determine unequal access to economic, social, political and cultural resources” Income/Jobs - persistent p
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