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SOC263H5 Lecture Notes - Social Inequality, Food Security, Racialization

Course Code
Mary Jo Nadeau

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January 12th
Understanding Power: The Persistence of Social Hierarchies/Exclusion
Social Exclusion
-structures and dynamic processes of inequality among groups in society which, over
ostructure access to critical resources
odetermine the quality of membership in society
oproduce and reproduce a complex of unequal outcomes (ex social inequality)
Canada’s Creeping Economic Apartheid
-the growing racialization of the gap between the rich and the poor in Canada (outcomes)
opersistent income gap
oabove average poverty levels
ohigh unemployment levels
ohigh underemployment levels
oover represented in low-income jobs/sectors (part-time, temp, home-work, non-
ounder represented in high income jobs/sectors (managerial, professional,
unionized jobs)
Social Exclusion – 4 Dimensions
1. from civil society – legal or institutional exclusion, based on citizenship
2. failure to provide for needs of particular groups – ex. disabilities accommodations,
income security
3. from social production – denial of opportunities to participate in society
4. economic exclusion – unequal access to normal forms of social consumption
Arenas of Social Exclusion: Cumulative Effect
-public sector: healthcare, schools/education, welfare, pensions, childcare,
-private sector: jobs, housing, food security
-neighbourhoods: housing stock, access to public services, over-policing, resources
-political representation: governments, states, elections, voting
-social/cultural: space, movement, activities
“…social exclusion is an expression of unequal relations of power among groups in societym
which then determine unequal access to economic, social, political and cultural resources”
-persistent patterned interactions and hierarchies
-racism and sexism combine to produce more economic inequalities for racialized
women then experienced by either white women or racialized men
Average Annual Income 1995/1996
$31,117 – all Canadian men $19,208 – all Canadian women
$23,600 – visible minority men $16,600 – visible minority women
$18,200 – aboriginal men $13,300 – aboriginal women
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