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Lecture 9

SOC275H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Neoliberalism, European Canadian, Care Work

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Hae Yeon Choo

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Lecture 9
Gender and Work II
- The origins of international women’s day: women workers’ strike in NY
o Right to unionize
Commodification of reproduction labor: the rise of institutionalized service work
- The shift to institutional service work, focusing on race and gender stratification in health
o Productive labor making stuff, factory work, wage work
o Reproductive work domestic work, child rearing, often done my women and
enabled the male worker to go out to work and come home to rest, shadow work
that makes the male productive labor possible
o This division didn’t happen in an agricultural setting, and the industrial revolution
changed things, from the home to the public sphere,
o In our current time period, this division is starting to blurr again, post-industrial
o Some reproductive work (cleaning, cooking, taking care of elderly) has moved
out of reproductive and the home and isin the market and left the domestic sphere
- From personal to structural hierarchy: The racial division of labor in nursing racial
composition in Nurses and Nurse’s Aides
Careworker in the Global context The live-in Caregiver Program (LCP) in Canada
- Neoliberalism At work in Global south and global north: “a market-driven approach to
economic and social policy, where capitalism’s profit motive is applied to social policies
and programs (like welfare and taxation), cutting them to increase profits”
o Global South: Structural Adjustment Programs (by the IMF and World Bank);
reduction in social safety net; underemployment and unemployment
Philippines chose migrant work export to facilitate using their criticizes as
workers who send money back home
o Global North: reduction in social services / welfare state
Cut out welfare policies, no public daycare
- People are given two year visas and then given the option to apply for permanent
o Neoliberalism
Broad term
In this context
There are principles that govern the market, when we enter the
market profits because the important thing, and the profits should
dominate the logic, in this definition, this logic is now being
applied to all other aspects of the life and social interactions, not
just about the market, but about the life, school, family, and so on,
the state, family, school, all need to function like a market
The market principles such as profit seeking need to be important
in all social life
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With this logic, big government isn’t good because lost of
spending, and it doesn’t really function like a market
Race and gender as interlocking systems
- Taking care of house work is the most important work in society, and creating this sweet
home, respect and glorification when it’s free
- When it’s done for pay, the type of respect is not translated because you don’t pay as
much for these domestic tasks
- Rise of work faire, you don’t just get support from government, but its workfare in that in
order to qualify for these things you need to try to apply for jobs, and that is a
requirement for the welfare payment
o The work you are doing it home to take care of that child isn’t what you are
contributing to society, and you can’t just rely on the state without being
productive (in the eyes of the state reproductive work isn’t as important)
Lalaie Ameeriar and the study of South Asian immigrant women
- Ethnographic study of Pakistani professional immigrant women in Toronto and their
experiences of downward mobility
- In the context of official policy of multiculturalism and “the points system” for
immigration since 1971
- When you have a successful job in Pakistan, you may not have the ability to get these
jobs here and you are in a substandard labour market now
- The Canadian immigration system you need to have certain points in the system in order
to be a full time citizen family, school, education, job
o Now the point system got in, the population got more diverse
- Contradictions of multiculturalism in Canada: what is the smell of citizenship?
o The denial of “differences” with regard to immigrant bodies, and the simultaneous
recognition of that very difference
o Celebrated only in the context of a public, commodified accessible form of
pleasure for white Canadian consumption
o Being ethnic is only something Canada and multicultural Toronto wants in a
festival, or in these setting, not in corporate settings (labor market)
o Commodified setting
Sanitizing the gender/racial differences
- Settlement services and the job market workshop
- Purifying oneself of the difference (“clean and professional”)
- Locating the unemployment for immigrants, not within labor markets, but in their body
focus on food smells, women’s clothing, names, etc
o Learning how to present oneself, and erase all the differences
o Not to wear certain clothing, not to smell like certain foods, names to something
easily recognizable, changes in this public context
Changes are different than in these festival contexts
How the same type of bodily difference has the dual effect of being
celebrated, but then in the job market you have to be this model of not
having any distinctive ethnic modifier
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