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316Lecture6.docx - Crime Prevention Through Social Development

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Zachary Levinsky

OUTLINE: Today we’ll talk about crime prevention through social development CPSD – The Roots of Youth Violence - Mandate - Broad recommendations - Roots of the immediate risk factors - Solutions (some of them) What does community mean here? Broken Windows and Zero Tolerance (quick summary) How is crime prevention achieved in the city? CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (CPSD) - Designed to be proactive o Reducing opportunities - Conditions of and risk factors for crime o Why do people commit crime? o Somewhat of a reconfiguration of welfarism - Social or economic links to crime o Where we can look at the root causes o Level of societal/community intervention o Many resources are not necessarily about crime prevention explicitly but there is an element b/c it becomes activated in crime prevention and bringing diverse things together into a coherent strategy - Diverse programmers and services  education, housing, public health, social services - Create bonds (to community/society) o Alienation is a big theme  Particularly involved in violent crime THE ROOTS [of immediate risk factors] OF YOUTH VIOLENCE Always an anxiety over young people, which hit high when an event happens  shooting, particularly violent  Assume things are going out of control, when really things are quite stable & most youth grow out of crime (cure is to just grow up) Need social development: more bonds to society as an adult (job, post-secondary education, etc.) See young people as being more alienated  marginalized group although tough to organize as one Roots are taken into account in shaping public policies No coherent policy or strategy in Ontario: have people competing for funding and securing resources, which means they are working against each other rather than together BROAD RECOMMENDATIONS Activating diverse amount of things, including activating communities Set objectives by working together as an active community No coordination/planning among diverse issues  no overall strategy or goal in mind. Set up goals as short-term and long-term. Young people must also be actively engaged otherwise cannot enforce policies involving them Constantly evaluating and assessing things: audits, effectiveness. Have small group who create it and also evaluate it to see if it works. Evaluation is a problem Can look at meta-analyses While concerns are valid and it does happen, very few people commit serious violence  easily can forget when headlines are sensationalized If you focus on risk factors, will help but does not mean the young person was going to be a criminal ROOTS OF THE IMMEDIATE RISK FACTORS Three issues/risk factors: family (parental) supervision, socioeconomic status, and schools 1. Poverty a. Poverty does not directly cause violent crime b. Correlation is not causation c. Three different works to affect youth violence d. relative deprivation (related to strain theory): how worse off do you feel compared to other people, related to economic strain, related to not having means to do what others can i. exclusion from minimum conditions of normal living leads to alienation [in ON] ii. youth see selves as victims of uncaring society iii. belief they have no stake/future [in society] e. Concentration of Poverty i. Ghettoization: poor forced to live in functionally segregated parts of cities ii. Problem areas: unintegrated communities [economically; don’t say how they came to be] with high levels of poverty and transient populations [people come and go; nobody wants to stay; bonds don’t form] iii. Still have strong community networks and relations: people coming and going destabilized community iv. Needs support through economic integration: redesigning a park; building on people who are already there f. Circumstances of Poverty i. Services and not locally available or inaccessible ii. Poor in economically integrated communities face same deprivation: cannot afford user fees [many programs in Toronto used to be free or have a nominal fees; very few community centers are free; find that people traveling use them more than people living there]; face cultural barriers; or lack the time to services iii. Integration exists but lack of policy 2. Racism a. The racialization of poverty b. Racism when combined with poverty the ‘greatest connections to the issues faced by the review’ c. Most structures to confront racism no longer exist [i.e.: Special Committees] d. Somehow idea that we are post-race and no longer a concern e. Racism central conditions which can produce immediate risk factors for violence f. Race has nothing to do with violence 3. Impact of community design a. How is community defined? b. Isolation and exclusion are key i. Creating urban islands: isolating communities from other communities; pockets of houses separated from pockets of business and pockets of resources ii. I.e. Toronto – something from a documentary: Jane & Finch are people feel like seeing the CN tower is from a documentary and not their city even though they fall under the city of Toronto c. Transportation is key to isolation i. Isolation function of poor/costly transportation ii. Limits mobility iii. Less time to socialize in the school’s community after school b/c have to get home since it’s far iv. Stress for a job interview: relying
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